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  • 當前類別:首頁 >> 新版國學 >> 哲學 >> 明清哲學
    明代末年思想學術流派:東林學派(1)

    發布時間: 2019/7/3 0:13:36 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 中國經濟網
    文字 〖 〗 )

     

        東林學派,亦稱“東林黨人”,是中國明代末年思想學術領域出現的一個以講學與議政相結合的著名學術流派。因該學派的創始人顧憲成、高攀龍等學者在地處江蘇無錫城東隅弓河畔的東林書院聚眾講學和讀書,故得名。 

        明代末年,在閹黨把持下的朝政日益腐敗,皇帝、宦官、貴戚究奢極欲,瘋狂掠奪和兼并土地,一引起地區竟出現了“人相食”的情況,激起了農民的反抗和斗爭。礦監稅使橫行各地、橫征暴斂,加緊對城市手工業和商業的榨取,摧殘著某些地區剛剛出現的資本主義生產關系的萌芽,引起了新興市民階層的反對。一部分在朝官吏和在野的知識分子已經敏銳地感覺到“天崩地陷”、危機四伏,為了改革弊政,緩和矛盾,他們指責朝政腐敗,要求改革。萬歷二十二年(1594),敢于直諫的吏部郎中顧憲成因抨擊朝政而與明神宗朱翊鈞的意見相忤,被革職,回到家鄉江蘇無錫。但他并沒有消極隱居、歸逸山林,而是與弟弟顧允成于萬歷三十二年(1604)倡議重修地處無錫城東的東林書院,聚眾講學,把讀書、講學與關心國事緊密相聯,以“風聲雨聲讀書聲聲聲入耳,家事國事天下事事事關心”為學術宗旨。東林書院這種與議政相結合的講學、讀書活動,得到了社會上對現實不滿的地主、官僚、知識分子和商人的擁護,也得到朝廷中一些正直官員如趙南星等人的支持,許多不同學派的人士也“聞風響附,學舍至不能容”(《明史·顧憲成傳》),東林書院也因此成為當時社會輿論的導向。作為一個學術團體的東林學派,于是逐漸擴大成為一個政治派別,被當權者斥之為“東林黨”。

    編輯:秋痕

    吳震:泰州學案的重新厘定(2)
    明代末年思想學術流派:東林學派(2)

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