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    《易經》與畢達哥拉斯數學美學比較(4)

    發布時間: 2019/7/11 0:44:33 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 論文聯盟
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    亞理士多德受畢達哥拉斯學派影響,強調有機整體的和諧。圣奧古斯丁認為,“上帝本身就是整一,他把自己的性質印到他所創造的事物上去,使它盡量反映出他自己的整一。有限事物是可分裂的,雜多的,在努力反映上帝的整一時,就只能在雜多中見出整一,這就是和諧。和諧之所以美,就因為它代表有限事物所能達到的最近于上帝的那種整一。”他還說:“數始于一,數以等同和類似而美,數與秩序不可分。”(注11)圣奧古斯丁的這些觀點,顯然就是畢達哥拉斯數學美學原則的重復。著名的美學家鮑姆嘉通亦認為,“美是憑感官認識到的完善”。所謂“最好”就是“最完善”,最豐富的雜多調和于最完滿的整一(注12)。這種觀點,與畢達哥拉斯的數之圓滿理論也是一脈相承的。   
      受這種美學觀念的左右,西方古典藝術家紛紛追求文藝作品的對稱、穩定、整齊、和諧之趣,即“莊嚴的單純和靜穆的偉大”(注13)。如作為西方古典雕刻起源的伊琴島的人體雕像,在最關鍵的部位即頭部的雕刻中,就嚴格地遵守這種觀念。“雕像中所有的頭都是按一個模樣雕成的,不管動作、性格和情境方面有多么大的差別。鼻子都是尖的;額頭仍然是向后縮的,并不是自由直立的;耳朵豎得很高;眼睛的縫切得很長,平板無起伏,斜立著;口總是閉著的,口角向外扯起而不是低垂;腮幫也是平板的,下顎卻很厚實,現出棱角。頭發的樣式和衣服的褶紋也是千篇一律的,其中占統治地位的是對稱原則(這在雕像的姿勢和群像的組合中特別顯著)”。(注14)再如雅典衛城上的希臘神廟、古羅馬的圓拱式建筑、圓形露天劇場以及西班牙的紅宮建筑群,也都典型地體現了畢達哥拉斯數學美學體系的那種整齊、和諧、對稱、圓滿的數學美學精神。   
      這種情況一直到十九世紀初都沒有多大改變,當以參差變化為特征的中國園林藝術傳至歐洲時,美學大師黑格爾即每每表示看不慣。他聲明更重視整齊一律原則,而對錯綜變化的風格持否定態度。他說,“因為錯綜復雜的迷徑,變來變去的蜿蜒形的花床,架在死水上面的橋,安排得出入意外的高惕式的小教堂、廟宇,中國式亭院……之類都只能使人看了一眼就夠了,看第二眼就會討厭。”(注15)他認為美的園子的秩序安排應當是“整齊一律和平衡對稱”的。就象“最徹底地運用建筑原則于園林藝術的”法國的園子那樣,連樹木都是栽成有規律的行列,修剪得很整齊,圍墻也是用修剪整齊的籬笆來造成的。(注16)   
      畢達哥拉斯數學美學體系的美學原則在西方詩歌藝術中亦得到反映。與畢達哥拉斯數學美學觀念相對應,西方詩人表現出用圓滿的“數”來規范詩歌音步、詩行、詩節,從而使詩歌整體風格達到整齊和諧的審美傾向。   
      在研究中,我們發現“六”這個整齊的偶數在西方詩歌中具有特殊的意義。   
      首先,它限制著詩的音步,形成所謂“六音步詩體”。荷馬史詩《伊里亞特》、《奧德賽》都是六音步詩。所謂“六音步詩”,即由五個長短短格和一個長短格所構成的詩。古希臘語和拉丁語的元音長短區別較明顯,所以古希臘詩和拉丁詩都以元音長短的有規律的交替形成節奏,有短長格、短短長格、長短格、長短短格等。這種用元音長短構成的節奏顯得比較參差復雜,不符合西方人以“整齊單純”為美的審美習慣,故西方人以“六”這個整齊的偶數來規劃它,使參差歸于整齊、雜多歸于統一。   
    其次,它限制著詩的行數,形成所謂“六行詩”。六行詩比其他詩體形式更強烈地吸引了詩人的注意,但丁給六行詩作者阿諾以殊榮,他自己也模仿寫六行詩,還寫了一首雙體六行詩。六行詩刺激但丁的詩的天性和欲望,使他在文學領域顯示出無與倫比的才華。六行詩,亦體現出一種數的整齊。   
      再次,它還限制著詩的節數,形成所謂“六節詩”。六節詩共分六節,每節六行,首節各行最后一詞在各節中以不同次序重復之,最后一小節為三行,其中六個押韻詞三個置于行中,三個置于行末。六個押韻的詞在首節中按一種交替運動順序排列,次節以首節最后一詞作為第一行的韻詞,依次類推,直到結束。六節詩最能體現畢達哥拉斯以“數”來支配藝術、解析美的精神。受“六”這個整齊的偶數支配,這種詩體整體上呈回旋往復、環形勻速運動態勢。   
      為什么西方人這樣推崇“六”,以“六”來作為詩歌創作的一個重要編碼數目呢?塞維爾的伊西多認為,“六”屬于三個完美的數字(6,28,496),這三個數字依次地毫不亞于10,100和1000。他說:“一個完美的數是能夠由它的各部分恢復原數的數,例如六;因為它有三個部分,一個六分之一,一個三分之一,一個二分之一,它的六分之一是一,三分之一是二,二分之一是三。將一、二、三相加,其和正好是六。因此,毫不亞于一十、一百和一千的完美的數是六、二十八和四百九十六”。(注17)此外,西方人認為“數字6屬于天空的半族,數字7屬于陸地的半族(這恰好同《易經》以奇數7為天、以偶數6為地相反)……在旭日的形象中數13可以象征兩項之和:6和7,天和地等。”(注18)這種強調6同于10、象征完滿和天體的觀點,其與畢達哥拉斯數學美學精神是相通的。這正是“六”成為西方詩人特別注意的一個數目的原由。   
      總上所述,我們清楚地看到:畢達哥拉斯數學美學體系及其所代表的西方文藝的整體特征,是在數的參差變化中求不變、穩定、整齊、對稱;在西方藝術家的眼中,整齊一律是最美的,而參差變化是文藝數量編碼運動之大忌。與此相對,《易經》數學美學體系及其所代表的中國文藝的整體特征,是在數的整齊一律中求變化、運動、參差、錯綜;在中國藝術家的眼中,參差變化是最美的,而整齊一律是文藝數量編碼運動之大忌。雖然二者最后都在表層藝術形態上體現為數的“整齊與參差”、“穩定與變化”這對矛盾的對立統一,但其基本運動指向和趨勢是相反的。這表現在藝術風格上:一是靜穆、雄渾、單純、崇高;一是靈動、飄逸、曲致、奔放。畢達哥拉斯數學美學體系和《易經》數學美學體系對各自民族藝術精神的影響如此之大,是令我們感到吃驚的。   
         
      六   
         
      然而,是什么原因造成了畢達哥拉斯數學美學體系和西方人更重視對稱、穩定、和諧之美,《易經》數學美學體系和中國人更重視參差、變化、錯綜之美呢?這是一個很難回答的問題,當然,也是一個頗值得探討的問題。我們認為,數,作為體現宇宙自然及其關系的一種客觀存在,無論對西方人和中國人都是一致的;它所具有的那種整齊對稱之美和參差錯落之美,對西方人和中國人也都是一樣的。對于不同的數學美學的追求和偏愛,不是數本身“美”或“不美”的問題,而是審美主體的心理因素的差異所致。   
      那么,又是什么東西造成了西方人和中國人的這種審美心理因素的差異呢?德國美學家瑪克斯·德索的兩個重要研究成果為我們解答這一問題提供了啟示:   
      一、“對稱和諧只在橫式中產生愉悅”。   
      二、對稱的豎式給人的感覺是不對稱(參差)的。   
      瑪克斯·德索是這樣解釋他的這兩個“成果”的:這是由于“與我們有關的絕大多數自然結構都表現出橫向對稱,正因為我們習慣于這種對稱,所以轉向藝術作品里的這種對稱便使我們得到重新發現熟悉的規則的愉快。然而人和低級動物的雙邊橫向對稱形式不足以解釋為什么人們在創作和欣賞藝術品時喜愛對
    編輯:秋痕

    《易經》與畢達哥拉斯數學美學比較(3)
    《易經》與畢達哥拉斯數學美學比較(5)

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