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    《易經》與畢達哥拉斯數學美學比較(3)

    發布時間: 2019/7/11 0:44:35 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 論文聯盟
    文字 〖 〗 )
    編碼節奏和整體風格產生了廣泛而深遠的影響。在這個原則的潛在制約下,中國的藝術家們往往追求“不齊之齊”,用參差來求整齊;中國文藝呈現出了一種一以貫之的參差變化、曲折多姿的美學特征。    
      宗白華先生對中國畫的錯綜變化的空間節奏就有很好的品評。他在《論中西畫法的淵源與基礎》一文指出:中國畫不象“西洋自埃及、希臘以來傳統畫風,是在一幅幻現立體空間的畫境中描出圓雕式的物體”,而是“用筆墨的濃淡,點線的交錯,明暗虛實的互映,形體氣勢的開合,譜成一幅如音樂如舞蹈的圖案。物體形象宛然在目,然而飛動搖曳,似真似幻,完全溶解渾化在筆墨點線的互流交錯之中!”    
      書法家則憑借漢字的點、橫、豎、撇、捺的長短、大小、多少、肥瘦、疏密、朝揖、應接、向背、穿插來展示書法藝術的參差錯落之美。如顏真卿“《送裴將軍詩》兼正行分篆體。倏肥倏瘦,倏巧倏拙。或動若鋼鐵,或佯若美女;或如冠冕大人,鳴金佩玉于廟堂之上;或如龍跳天門,虎臥鳳闕;或如金剛瞋目,夜叉挺臂;或如飄風驟雨,落花飛雪”(《書林藻鑒》)。   

     連插花藝術都以這種參差節奏為旨歸。明袁宏道曾論插花說:“插花不可太繁,亦不可太瘦,多不過兩種三種,高低疏密,如畫苑布置方妙。置瓶忌兩對,忌一律,忌成行列,忌以繩束縛。夫花之所謂整齊者,正以參差不倫,意態天然。”(注8)    
      至于蘇州園林藝術對回廊曲水、嶙峋怪石、繞樹枯藤、蜿蜒小徑的偏愛,則是《易經》數學美學參差變化精神的具象體現了。    
      詩文藝術編碼節奏更是這樣。劉大櫆論文曰:“文貴參差。天生之物,無一無偶,而無一齊者。故雖排比之文,亦以隨勢曲注為佳。”(《論文偶記》)袁枚論詩曰:“揉直使曲,疊單使復,山愛武夷,為游不足。”(《續詩品·取逕》)    
      這種參差變化的審美原則對中國格律詩(近體詩)的形成和定格的影響最為突出。在其規范下,中國格律詩在整體上呈現出于對稱中求參差錯落的藝術特征。    
      一、從語音聲調上考察。中國格律詩在聲調上的特點是分平仄、明四聲,追求高低變化、抑揚頓挫的音韻節奏。即所謂“宮羽相變,低昂互節,若前有浮聲,則后須切響。一篇之內,音韻盡殊;兩句之中,輕重悉異。”(注9)這種參差錯落的平仄四聲節奏的形成與劃分,即與《易經》數學美學原則密切相關。據“四聲說”的首創者沈約云,他以“四聲”來劃分漢語聲調,便是出于對《易經》“四象”數量編碼運動的模仿。    
      二、從文字對偶上考察。中國格律詩的最大特色是講究字句的對偶。這種“對偶”節奏也是從《易經》數學美學體系而來。我們知道,《易經》的陰陽二爻對轉規律就是一種“對偶”規律。八卦乃至六十四卦的卦畫、名稱及其所代表的事物,在其形式和內容上都是對偶的。如乾對坤、天對地、震對巽、雷對風、艮對兌、山對澤、坎對離、水對火等,莫不對得十分工整。這些“對子”后來還直接用于詩歌創作之中,杜甫就喜用“乾坤”、“天地”等《易經》上的對子入詩。據日僧遍照金剛《文鏡秘府論·對偶類》載,唐人研制近體詩格律時,便以《易經》上的“對子”作為模式:“元氏云:‘易曰:水流濕、火就燥,云從龍、風從虎……此皆圣作切對之例也。’”“況乎庸才凡調,而對而不求切哉?”    
      值得指出的是,正象《易經》的陰陽二爻對應不是“對稱”而是“對立”一樣(以上所引《易經》諸對亦然),中國格律詩的對偶在其實質上也是“對立”而不是“對稱”。這與畢達哥拉斯數學美學體系講求的“對稱”是不同的。中國格律詩的對偶體現的仍是一種在整齊一律中求參差變化的藝術精神。首先,它在平仄聲調上是相錯的;其次,它在內容意義上是相反的。那種在形式和內容上都很對稱的對子即所謂“正對”,是受中國詩人貶斥的。中國詩人提倡的是那種形式內容上都錯綜變化的“反對”。如《文心雕龍·麗辭》所云:“反對為優,正對為劣。”    
      三、中國格律詩歌編碼節奏還有一條重要原則,即“半逗律”。所謂“半逗律”,就是一句詩必須有一個“逗”(最顯著的那個“頓”),這個“逗”把詩句分成前后(或上下)兩半。其音節分配是:五言二三,七言四三。林庚先生和袁行霈先生都對此作過研究,認為“半逗律”乃是“中國詩歌民族形式上的普遍特征”(注10)。但中國詩歌何以會形成這個“普遍特征”,兩位先生都沒有深究。其實,這個“半逗律”,亦即《易經》數學美學體系的“寓變化于整齊”規律。“半逗”,即陰陽對分;“二三”或“四三”音節,即奇數、偶數的參差交錯。六言詩和四言詩不合乎這一美學規律,故始終未能成為中國古典詩歌的主要形式。六言詩以二二二這樣的勻稱音節組合,四言詩以二二音節組合,都不合乎奇偶對立規則。只有五言詩、七言詩是奇偶交錯、陰陽對立、寓變化于整齊,合乎《易經》數學美學規律,因而成為中國詩歌的最完美形式。    
      在《易經》數學美學體系中,“九”是一個至高至美的數,而“七”,這是一個最富于“變化”的數。“七”,最集中地反映了《易經》的變化精神,是《易經》變化規律的總結。《易經》重卦的數量編碼運動,即是以“七”為循環曲線不斷向前推進的。《易經》數學美學體系有一條重要規律,就叫“七日來復”。(“復卦”卦辭曰:“反復其道,七日來復”。)    
      我們從七言詩平仄與四象數量編碼序列的對應關系中,可以清楚地看到:七言詩之所以為“七言”,是由這條規律制約的。    
          
      五    
          
      然而,在西方,由于受畢達哥拉斯數學美學體系“寓整齊于變化”審美原則的影響,其文藝編碼節奏和風格,卻以整齊一律、統一和諧為上乘。
    編輯:秋痕

    《易經》與畢達哥拉斯數學美學比較(2)
    《易經》與畢達哥拉斯數學美學比較(4)

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