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  • 當前類別:首頁 >> 新版國學 >> 文學 >> 明代文學 >> 文學理論著述
    明朝的文化種子楊慎

    發布時間: 2019/6/4 0:13:35 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 論文聯盟
    文字 〖 〗 )
    明朝的文化種子楊慎
     滾滾長江東逝水,浪花淘盡英雄,是非成敗轉頭空。青山依舊在,幾度夕陽紅。白發漁樵江渚上,慣看秋月春風。一壺濁酒喜相逢,古今多少事,都付笑談中。 
      ——楊慎《臨江仙》 
      一曲《三國演義》電視劇主題曲,穿越歷史的沉沉霧靄。以力壓昆侖、氣貫長虹之勢,磅礴而起,響徹九州大地。這首詞出自楊慎的《廿一史彈詞》。毛宗崗在修訂《三國演義》時獨具慧眼地將它選作全書開篇,可以說只有《臨江仙》才得以概括三國波瀾壯闊的歷史。可有多少人知道它的詞作者就是楊慎,又有多少人知道他凄苦而又大美的人生呢? 
      楊慎出身于四川新都的官宦世家,家世顯赫。1511年,24歲的楊慎高中狀元,授翰林院修撰。楊慎性格孤僻、剮烈、桀驁,正是他性格的缺陷注定了他悲劇的一生。楊慎在人生的舞臺上剛剛嶄露頭角,立即遭到當頭棒喝,因“大禮議”被謫戍云南永昌衛,從金榜題名到淪落南荒,“大禮議”這副沉重的枷鎖伴隨了他一生。 
      所謂的“大禮議”,是指嘉靖以“兄終弟及”的方式登上皇帝寶座后,按照皇統繼承規則,嘉靖要承認孝宗是“皇考”,享祀太廟,而嘉靖只能稱生父“本生父”或“皇叔父”。嘉靖即位后第6天,就下詔令群臣議定他自己的生父興獻王為“皇考”,按皇帝的尊號和祀禮對待。嘉靖的做法顯然有違大明祖制,有違“禮儀之邦”之義,遭內閣首輔楊廷和(楊慎的父親)等人力諫受阻。3年后,羽翼漸豐的嘉靖正式下詔改稱生父為恭穆皇帝。滿朝文武表達出了強烈的憤慨,楊廷和憤然辭官,不識時務的楊慎會同學士豐熙等229名大臣跪在左順門撼門大哭,聲徹宮禁。嘉靖大怒,134名四品以下官員遭廷杖,17人死于非命,楊慎僥幸死里逃生,被貶謫云南。從此,楊慎再未踏進京城一步。正是“大禮議”,打破了公正、寬容、和諧的社會秩序,嘉靖掙脫祖制束縛。擺脫大臣羈絆,皇權高度集中,對待政事隨心所欲,為以后20年不上朝、煉丹玄修、重用嚴黨埋下了伏筆。有明一代的道德自正德、嘉靖朝開始。出現了崩盤的前兆。 
      命運給楊慎開了一個天大的玩笑,昔日錦衣玉食的生活一去不復返。楊慎并沒有畏懼和消極,借詠邊塞奇花異草,以生在“窮LU絕域”而“絕世獨立”自喻。楊慎在放逐滇南的漫長歲月里,關心民間疾苦,處江湖之遠不忘國事。他發現昆明一帶豪紳以修治海口為名,勾結地方官吏強占民田、斂財肥己、禍害百姓時,寫出《海口行》《后海口行》等詩加以痛斥,還專門修書給云南巡撫趙劍門,請求制止如此勞民傷財的所謂水利工程。 
      玉不琢,不成器。三十多年艱苦的流放生涯,楊慎寄情山水,專心致志地鉆研文史,悉心著述,涉獵文、詞、賦、散曲、雜劇、彈詞,范圍極廣,并為白族修史。在復古風氣較為流行的時候,他廣泛吸取六朝、初唐詩歌精華,形成“濃麗婉至”的詩歌風格。楊慎一生最大的貢獻是在滇南各州府設館授徒,當時滇南名士十之八九出自他的門下。有明一代的文化種子在遠離京城的窮鄉僻壤生長、開花,大放異彩。 
      美目盼兮,巧笑倩兮。大凡文人都喜好扎在煙花堆里,這是文人自我解脫的一種途徑。楊慎謫居云南時也如此,他在粉脂間汪洋恣肆,藝術察賦瞬間揮發得酣暢淋漓。楊慎的書法在嘉靖朝是一座高峰,字跡端秀俊逸,如含珠吐玉,時人以收藏楊慎墨寶為榮。一些地方達官往往趁楊慎在宴席上似醉非醉之時,讓事先裹好白綾的歌妓恰到好處地出場以歌舞助興,楊慎一時興起,便將錦繡墨寶揮灑在歌妓身上,成為一時美談。 
      如果楊慎淹沒在嘈雜的官場喧囂中,整天想著的都是勾心斗角的政壇,他的才情必然受損,甚至折殺。中國歷史上數百個狀元,能夠留名后世的不多,楊慎是其中的佼佼者。沒有了政事掣肘,楊慎迅速變臉為文壇領袖,成為當時文壇極為耀眼的坐標。楊慎兼長經學、史學、哲學、語言學、音韻學、金石學、書法繪畫、戲曲音樂和民俗文藝,平生著作有400余種,存詩約2300首。這些著述往往有獨到主見,或可補史闕,或提供線索,有相當大的學術價值。他的著述和見解,對改進明代的詩歌文學理論、推動通俗文體的創造和鼓勵民眾口頭傳承的發展,有著不可磨滅的功績;他的理想人格和人文精神,在明代引起了相當大的震動,得到李贄、錢謙益和陳寅恪等一批后世學者的大力推崇。李贄在其《續焚書》卷一中有這樣一段話:升庵先生固是才學卓越,人品俊偉,然得弟讀之,益光彩煥發,流光于百世也。岷江不出人則已。一出人則為李謫仙、蘇坡仙、論文聯盟www.Lwlm.com楊戍仙,為唐宋并我朝特出,可怪也哉!李贄將明之楊慎與唐之李白、宋之蘇軾推崇到等高地位,這是對楊慎在明代文化地位的中肯評價。 
      《大明律》規定滿65歲的充軍者可以由子侄替役,年過七旬可以贖身。嘉靖帝對楊慎的懷恨是終生的,他的先祖朱棣對不合作的知識分子實行肉體消滅政策,嘉靖帝對知識分子的打壓則少了血腥,轉而采用精神摧殘手法,對知識分子的精神領袖更是如此。我想,楊慎一定沒有泯滅回歸的念頭,畢竟楊家四代有大功于朝廷,畢竟他和嘉靖有師生之誼。他肯定期盼著皇上赦免的詔書到來,然而楊慎等到的是法外加刑,勒令服役至死,他的夢想徹底粉碎。楊慎是嘉靖懷疑、監視的對象,他的一舉一動都牽動著嘉靖的神經,戴罪之身還對政事指手畫腳,更增加了嘉靖的憎恨。1559年,這位“不出則已,一出驚人”的文壇泰斗客死云南邊陲。8年后隆慶即位,以嘉靖遺詔之名為楊慎平反,追贈光祿寺少卿。這是隆慶的意思還是嘉靖確有遺詔,已經不再重要,這份詔書對于九泉之下的楊慎已經整整遲到了8年。 
      嘉靖對楊慎的迫害,禍及楊慎家室。嘉靖七年,楊廷和被削職為民,剝奪一切功名和俸祿。正是楊廷和親手選定嘉靖繼位大統,也正是嘉靖將楊家推入深淵。楊廷和的悲憤交加可想而知,這位有明一代的杰出政治家,于嘉靖八年撒手人寰。楊慎的妻子黃娥,是有明一代才女,黃娥獨居桂湖,三十余年的光陰是在苦苦期盼中度過的。黃娥留有這樣的詩句:“雁飛曾不到衡陽,錦字何由寄永昌?三春花柳妾薄命,六詔風煙君斷腸。日歸日歸愁歲暮,其雨其雨怨朝陽。相憐空有刀環約,何日金雞下夜郎?”門前桂湖清波蕩漾,荷葉年年新綠,卻盼不來夫君回歸,黃娥的心境是何等凄滲!直至0死后才得以夫妻團聚,何嘗不是她人生的最大悲劇。 
      朱元璋將孟子的牌位從孔廟搬出后,相當長的一段時間里,“民為重,社稷次之,君為輕”的思想被顛覆,有明大部分皇帝視百官為家奴,視百姓為草芥,奴民壓民,搞得民不聊生。綜觀有明一代,很少有帝王謙虛面對忠臣之諫。朱元璋面對葉伯巨上疏,反對分封諸王,說恐日后有變的前瞻性論斷,竟以離間治罪處死;可惜忠言逆耳,20年后的那場骨肉相殘不幸被言中。嘉靖沒有扼殺楊慎和海瑞,是大明的福分,雖然嘉靖荒誕、自大、刻薄、殘忍交集一身,至少他還有效文景之治的大夢,有效賢君的理想,楊慎和海瑞才不至于一死,才給有明—代留下了文化的種子和道德的種子。 
      我們再回到《臨江仙》的話題上來。我個人更愿意把《臨江仙》看做是楊慎的人生答案,單單看大徹大悟的歷史觀和人生觀,雄渾的刀筆和揮灑的氣勢,我更傾向于它是楊慎的晚年之作,是對生命反復斟酌后的神來之筆。 
      “滾滾長江東逝水,浪花淘盡英雄”,在我們面前突然展開一幅橫波萬里的畫卷,闊大雄渾,氣勢恢弘。以一去不返的長江水借喻歷史浩蕩,用浪花淘盡借喻英雄的叱咤風云。“是非成敗轉頭空”,功敗垂成都將隨著時間而付諸東流,表達出楊慎曠達超逸的人生觀。“青山依舊在,幾度夕陽紅”,興盛輪回,但青山和夕陽都不會隨之改變,人生易老天難老的悲愴席卷而來。下闋展現了一個白發漁樵獨釣寒江的形象,漁樵只慣看于春風秋月,是非成敗擺放一邊,固守著寧靜與淡泊。“一壺濁酒喜相逢”,君子之交,淡淡如水,偶然相逢,欣然之情,躍然紙面。“古今多少事,都付笑談中”,為全篇點睛妙筆,數千年驚濤駭浪的歷史,在裊裊酒香中一笑而過。將生死榮辱輕輕放下。似松風過林,如影落臺階,不費點墨,不留痕跡。這就是作者淡泊襟懷的真實寫照。 
      《明史》本傳記載:“明世記誦之博,著作之富,推慎第一。”橫溢的才情,高曠的意境,雄闊的胸襟,雄渾的刀筆,正是楊慎將有明一代的文化推向了巔峰。作者:魯曉敏
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