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    淺論中國古典園林藝術造園的美學特征

    發布時間: 2019/7/5 18:18:11 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 中國論文聯盟
    文字 〖 〗 )
    中國古典園林生成以來,沿著“崇尚自然”的道路一直走到封建社會結束。以真山真水為基礎,以植物做點綴,在布局上因山就勢,靈活布置,一切都順應自然。中國園林在這條道路上不斷發展、完善,終于形成了自然寫意山水園的獨特風格,體現了人與自然的和諧、協調。“知者樂水,仁者樂山”這句話包含了中國園林的精髓。這種講求自然的特點深受古代自然美學的影響,特別是受到以孔子、孟子為代表的儒家思想和以老子、莊子為代表的道家思想的影響。孔子認為自然之美在于“比德”,“君子比德”思想對園林的發展有很大的影響,被歷代士人們奉為至理名言,作為論析風景的理論依據。如文人特別喜歡石,以石之品行象征自己剛正不阿,在園林中堆山置石成為園林組景的重要手段。又如文人以“歲寒三友”的習性象征自己的高風亮節,因此園林多種植松、竹、梅。道家崇尚自然,追求虛靜,講求“出世”“無為”,這些思想都推動了園林的發展。大多數文人懷才不遇,逃避現實,隱逸于山水之間,而道家講求虛靜、無為,正和文人的心境。他們游山玩水,好山林之樂,更在自己的寓所周圍營造園林,一方面供自己娛樂之用,另一方面借山水之情,抒發自己的情懷。

      佛家文化自融入中國本土文化之后,其所具有的美學理論對中國古代的山水觀產生了更為深刻的影響。佛家對美強調“心識”,其原因是認為“美由心造,心融萬有”,因此而產生了“實有境無,境假識真”的審美觀。在中國畫的藝術表現中有的大塊的“留白”,其原理即來自于畫家對空的特有認識,道出了佛家的“無相之象”的道理,追求的一種“無畫之處皆成妙景”的藝術境界。不論是儒家的“上不與天地同流”還是道家的“天地與我并生,而萬物與我為一”都把人和天地萬物緊密地聯系在一起,視為不可分割的共同體,這種“天人合一”的思想促使人們去探求自然[5]。

      中國古人對于園林景觀意識的體現具有一定的中國傳統的審美特色,已經將景觀的理解融入中國傳統美學和哲學的構架中了。黑格爾認為,中國的園林藝術“是一種繪畫”。中國園林是用泉池、花木、峰巒、亭閣、橋涵等實物環境來再現自然美。這當中又通過對意境的強調而達到詩、文、畫、園幾種文化藝術的相互交融,從而形成了中國園林的主要特征。中國傳統園林美學和中國繪畫理論都體現出了古代先民以自然為范本的景觀意識,現代人們需要的也許不是古典園林中的亭榭樓閣,而是小橋流水般的自然情趣,是一種總體的印象與感受,是與自然的親和,是置身其中的體驗。現代城市景觀只有在傳統園林文化的基礎上,才會創造出具有時代特色的現代城市景觀。我們不但要繼承先輩們所創造的優秀古典園林藝術,還要勇于開拓,刻意進取,探索適應現代中國人審美情趣和時代要求的新的景觀設計手法和形式。(作者工作單位:中鐵十三局集團第五工程有限公司)


      參考文獻:

      [1] 薛保華. 論《園冶》造園境界觀[J]. 美術大觀, 2009:245-245
      [2] 伍蠡甫. 中國畫論研究[M]. 北京:北京大學出版社 1983:229-229
      [3] 朱曉煒張曉東 中國繪畫理論對古典園林的影響[J]. 美術大觀, 2007:9-9
      [4] 陳禾青. 中國的地域性文化對中國畫的影響[J]. 美術大觀, 2009:203-203
      [5] 潘谷西. 中國建筑史[M]. 北京:中國建筑工業出版社 2004:182 ,180
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