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  • 中國古代建筑布局(1)
  • 當前類別:首頁 >> 新版國學 >> 民俗 >> 建筑 >> 建筑文化
    千年敦煌壁畫演繹中國建筑變遷“古為今用”引設計時尚

    發布時間: 2019/7/2 0:10:24 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 中國新聞網
    文字 〖 〗 )

    敦煌石窟壁畫中大量古建筑形象,為當今研究中國古代建筑歷史提供了最原始和最可靠的依據。 楊艷敏 攝

      中新網蘭州6月29日電 (殷春永 高展 高康迪)作為我國和世界壁畫藝術最寶貴的遺珍,敦煌石窟中大量的壁畫表現了上起十六國,下迄唐宋各時代豐富的古建筑形象,為當今研究中國古代建筑歷史提供了最原始和最可靠的依據。其不僅演繹了中國建筑的時代變遷,亦成為年輕建筑設計師創作的“朝圣地”。

      “在莫高窟,有很多大型經變畫,表現佛國美妙世界,在一定現實生活基礎上,通過畫師想象展現出來,佛國世界的建筑樓閣都是來自于當時的現實生活。”敦煌研究院文化弘揚部的講解員羅文娟近日接受中新網記者采訪時說。

          敦煌壁畫中所見的建筑圖中,在庭院之部署、建筑類型和建造情形等方面,均真實還原當時著名建筑的場景。 楊艷敏 攝

      如今,很多學習建筑設計的年輕人都會來敦煌專門研究壁畫中的建筑造型。羅文娟說:“敦煌壁畫是一座古建筑造型資料的寶庫,是很多建筑學家心中的朝圣之地。壁畫中斗拱這一元素便被應用在2010年上海世博會中國館的設計中。”

      莫高窟開鑿于前秦建元二年,即公元366年,歷時千年方才形成如此宏大壯觀的規模。敦煌壁畫是敦煌藝術的主要組成部分,規模巨大,技藝精湛。敦煌壁畫的內容豐富多彩,其中包括很多的古代建筑原型圖像,為中國對古建筑研究留下了真實直觀的資料。

      據敦煌研究院研究員王進玉介紹,從敦煌壁畫中所見的建筑圖中,在庭院之部署、建筑類型和建造情形等方面,均真實還原當時著名建筑的場景。

      “從魏晉南北朝直到唐代,尤其是中唐以前大約500年間,我國現存的木構殿堂房舍等古代建筑寥寥無幾,現存的絕大部分是磚石佛塔。敦煌壁畫中的建筑,分別屬于東晉十六國末到西夏的各個時代,前后延續了800年。而建筑資料的精華部分恰恰是北朝至唐代500年間的。”王進玉說,敦煌壁畫中的建筑畫是僅次于實物的最好的,最真實的、最可貴的資料。毫無疑義,它填補了中國建筑史空白的篇章。

      王進玉介紹,壁畫中有近300幅的大型院落群體畫,充分反映了“成院落布局的群體組合”這一中國古代建筑的主要特點。在敦煌壁畫上,有跨越千年的建筑造型供我們參考研究,并且這些亭臺樓閣造型都是當時真實存在的著名建筑,很多都是皇家建筑。

      王進玉表示,壁畫中的很多建筑都是當時皇宮里的原型寫照,包括壁畫中的女性人物都是當時皇宮里的宮女形象。其中,220窟里的建筑在現在西安大明宮里都能找到建筑原型。

      據了解,建筑大師梁思成就曾以敦煌壁畫中的一座寺廟為線索,最終找到了唐代時期木建筑的遺存——佛光寺東大殿(建于唐大中十一年)。

      王進玉說,敦煌石窟壁畫中大量精細逼真的古代建筑充分說明在從印度經由西域輸入的佛教思想浪潮的沖擊下,中國眾多的工藝和建筑匠師們在佛教藝術初興、全盛以至逐漸衰落的l000年間,無論是石窟建筑還是佛教中的建筑畫,從沒有被外來的樣式所誘惑、所動搖,而是富有自信心地運用自己的智慧和才能,靈活地應用于中國自己的建筑體系,以適應于新的需求。(完)

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