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    劉瑾,被千刀萬剮的專權太監(2)

    發布時間: 2008/10/24 9:49:59 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 新華網
    文字 〖 〗 )

    武宗不但繼續寵信劉瑾等人,還將司禮監、東廠、西廠也讓他們分別掌管。同時,將另一個正直的太監送南京充軍,后又在半途截殺。糊涂的武宗由于不知好歹,給明朝帶來了很大的災難。

    司禮監在當時是很重要的內宮官署,有掌印太監一名,秉筆太監八九名。在明朝,百官向皇帝上書,要先送內閣,由內閣輔臣作出初步的處理意見,叫做"票擬",再交給皇帝批閱。皇帝用朱筆(即紅筆)在奏章上批示,叫做"批紅"。

    有的皇帝如果不勤于政事,便讓司禮監寵信的太監代筆,這就給太監的胡作非為提供了條件。另外,司禮監的太監還有一個其他部門無法比擬的特權:傳達皇帝旨意。有時由秉筆太監記錄下皇帝說的話,然后讓內閣起草,或者由太監口頭傳達給有關大臣。這種制度直接給宦官造成了篡改圣旨的機會。劉瑾就是司禮監的主管,這是他專橫跋扈的重要資本。

    對于曾經聯合起來想置他于死地的大臣們,劉瑾當然是恨之入骨。在自己掌握大權之后,便向這些大臣開刀了。他用的方法很多,一是處罰,即罰米供應邊境。因為罰的數目很大,有的竟達到幾千石之多,使很多大臣被罰得傾家蕩產。其次是身體處罰,最狠毒的是脫掉衣服進行廷杖。明朝原來的廷杖僅僅是對大臣的一種人格侮辱,并不是身體處罰,所以允許大臣用氈、毯以及棉衣墊在身上。但劉瑾卻要大臣脫衣受刑。行刑期間又授意執行的錦衣衛加力責打,結果大臣們常被當場打死。還有,劉瑾造了一種大枷,有150斤重,被他迫害的大臣戴上這種枷后,沒幾天便被拖累致死。

    劉瑾知道負責勸諫的言官們對他的威脅很大,在掌權后,對言官也不放過。除了借故進行罷免、廷杖以及誣陷定罪外,在平時還制裁威脅這些言官:命令他們在早晨寅時(三點到五點)入朝,一直到下午的酉時(五點到七點)才讓走。一天上班時間竟達14個小時左右,劉瑾的目的就是讓他們不得休息,讓他們沒精力彈劾自己。

    劉瑾打擊異己時隨心所欲,對于在平時只對他作揖而沒有磕頭行大禮的翰林院的官員,他也不放過。找了個借口一次就把20人趕到南京去任職,有的還削職為民。

    在將異己的大臣們都清除后,劉瑾便隨心所欲地專權了,他很會控制皇帝為他所用。先用打球跑馬、帶鷹抓兔等纏住愛玩的武宗,然后,專門在武宗玩得高興的時候向他請示政事,武宗總是心煩地說:"怎么什么事都來找我,你們這些人都是吃閑飯的嗎?"劉瑾裝得灰溜溜的樣子退下,心中美滋滋地專權誤國去了。通過這一手,劉瑾很容易地將內閣的大權也握在手中了。

    為了徹底掌握內閣,他還將原來向自己告密立功的焦芳安排在內閣任職,焦芳則什么事都看劉瑾的眼色行事,這就開了內閣輔臣聽從太監指揮的惡例。

    除了內閣,政權機關就是六部了,劉瑾又將自己的手下同黨安排進了六部。有時,他僅在紙上寫誰做什么官,六部便要照他的意思安排。那些地位很高的公侯們見了劉瑾也得跪拜,連頭都不敢抬一下。

    劉瑾的水平有限,為了批閱奏章,他就將大臣的奏章拿回家里,讓在禮部做官的妹夫替他批閱,再拿到內閣讓焦芳修改。所以,當時的人們都在暗地里叫他"立皇帝"。

    為了增加自己的權勢,劉瑾還建立了另外的特務組織"內行廠",權力在錦衣衛和東廠、西廠之上。通過特務來監督官吏和百姓,制造恐怖氣氛,維持自己的專權。有了權勢之后,劉瑾和很多貪官一樣也開始斂財。他的手法也沒有什么創新,索賄、受賄、貪污,都是一般的手法。只不過他的膽子比一般的貪官大了很多,因為并沒有人對他進行制約。

    有個叫劉宇的人,剛當上巡撫時,用萬金向劉瑾行賄,使劉瑾喜不自禁。后來劉宇又先后給了劉瑾幾萬兩銀子,結果一直升遷到兵部尚書的位子上。其他的官員多數是害怕劉瑾對自己打擊報復,進京朝拜述職時總是要向劉瑾行賄,叫做"拜見禮"。少則上千兩,多則5000兩。有一年,考察地方官時,竟有人賄賂兩萬兩銀子。如果升了官要立即使用重金"謝"劉瑾,叫做"謝禮"。送少了還不行,否則會馬上撤職,但如果你趕緊追加銀子,官職又能馬上恢復。官位基本上成了劉瑾手中賣錢的商品。

    接受別人的賄賂之后,劉瑾還枉法行事,甚至制造冤獄。御史葛浩原來因為觸犯了劉瑾,被杖責后貶為平民,劉瑾卻收下了葛浩仇人的賄賂,找借口又將葛浩押進京城,處杖三十。

    劉瑾的專權不但使朝政混亂不堪,他的索賄受賄也直接導致了地方矛盾的激化。官員們向他行賄后,必然要加重剝削百姓,逼得百姓走投無路,只好反抗。在劉瑾被處死后僅僅幾個月,京城地區便發生了劉六、劉七起義。

    劉瑾的權勢越來越大,最后竟想當天下老大了,他私自刻了印璽,暗造弓箭,企圖尋機奪位。但是,螳螂捕蟬,黃雀在后,劉瑾只顧自己作威作福,沒想到其他的七虎正注視著他的一言一行。因為他們向劉瑾要權辦事時,劉瑾總是不肯照顧,時間一長,矛盾逐漸激化。

    1510年4月,武宗派都御史楊一清和七虎之一的太監張永去平定安化王的叛亂。叛亂平定之后,楊一清在向武宗報告戰況時,同時揭發了劉瑾的十七條大罪,其中包括謀反。

    武宗對別的事情不在意,一聽有人要謀反不禁大吃一驚,命令將劉瑾抓捕審問。第二天,武宗親自出馬,去抄劉瑾的家。結果發現了印璽、玉帶等禁止百姓和官員私自擁有的禁物。在劉瑾經常拿著的扇子中也發現了兩把匕首,武宗大怒,終于相信了劉瑾謀反的事實。

    當年8月,劉瑾被處以凌遲,也就是千刀萬剮,共行刑三天。在封建社會,除非謀反、殺父母親等屬于"十惡"的大罪,一般的死刑犯要等到秋天的霜降以后,在冬至以前才能處死。這是順應天時(季節變化),而春天萬物生長的時候禁止行刑,也禁止捕殺幼小的鳥禽和走獸。但劉瑾屬于謀反的第一重罪,所以不等到秋天的霜降到來就行刑了。原來受過其害的人家紛紛用一文錢買下劉瑾已被割成細條塊的肉吃下,以解心頭之恨。

    明朝的宦官專權使清朝充分總結了教訓,所以在清朝對太監管束很嚴,沒有出現過太監專權的情況。

    編輯:汀瀅

    “平民皇帝”朱元璋:酷刑株連大殺功臣宿將(1)
    劉瑾,被千刀萬剮的專權太監(1)

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