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  • 當前類別:首頁 >> 新版國學 >> 歷史 >> 隋唐五代 >>  >> 朝代
    芙蓉冠、咬唇妝、叉手禮…唐代流行社交風潮了解下

    發布時間: 2019/7/5 0:46:47 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 中國新聞網
    文字 〖 〗 )

    《長安十二時辰》視頻截圖

    中新網客戶端北京7月4日電(袁秀月)女性有多愛美,從妝容就能看出。空氣劉海、橘子汽水妝,走在街上,每個迎面走來的女孩都有自己的裝扮。其實早在唐代時,涂粉化妝就已成為社會風尚,唐朝女性的眉形、發型、妝容甚至更多樣。
      最近,電視劇《長安十二時辰》中的服裝、化妝和道具在網上引起熱議。芙蓉冠、咬唇妝、高發髻、叉手禮,在歷史上,唐代人是這樣嗎?除了易烊千璽和雷佳音,這部劇還有哪些亮點? 
      易烊千璽的發簪錯了嗎?
      在劇中,易烊千璽飾演少年天才李必,原型為唐代的四朝元老李泌,曾官至宰相。他一生崇尚道教,所以在劇中,李必一出場就身穿道服,手拿拂塵,頭戴蓮冠。其中,蓮冠的戴法還引起了爭議。
      之前很多古裝劇中,主人公的發簪都是橫著插在發冠上的,但李必頭上的簪子卻是縱向的,有人質疑,這是不是插錯了。
      其實,這種縱向佩戴簪子的方式叫子午簪,正是道教的特色。在唐朝時,道教已經形成了較為完善的服飾制度。修道者的服飾分為七種等級,按照入道年限和學道深淺,每個等級道士的衣服、冠巾和靴履及其所用的顏色、質地等都有不同規格。
      等級越高者,服飾越復雜和華麗,初入道門的人只能戴帽子。劇中,李必戴有兩冠,上清芙蓉冠和玉清蓮花冠,這是道教中高階法師才能佩戴的頭冠。
      特別的叉手禮
      對于古裝劇來說,禮儀非常重要,這也是代入情景的方式之一。大家對跪拜、作揖或拱手禮都很熟悉,但《長安十二時辰》中出現的叉手禮讓很多人一頭霧水,這是什么操作?
      叉手禮,即“以左手緊把右手拇指,其左手小指則向右手腕,右手四指皆直,以左手大指向上”,是一種表示特別恭敬的禮節。
      關于叉手禮,歷史上有很多記載,在漢末魏晉多次見于史冊。除了文獻記載,晚唐的趙逸公墓的壁畫中,也發現了叉手禮的記載,而在《韓熙載夜宴圖》和《女孝經圖》兩幅畫中也有叉手禮的圖形描述。
      有學者認為,在唐代時,叉手禮已經非常普及,婦孺皆知。而叉手禮廣泛流行,大概在宋元時期,也是人們生活中最基本的禮節方式。在電視劇《知否知否應是綠肥紅瘦》中,也多次出現了叉手禮。
      唐朝女子妝容多
      《長安十二時辰》播出后,唐代女子的咬唇妝登上了熱搜。實際上,不止唇妝,唐代女子對面妝、眉形、發髻也很講究。
      早在戰國時期,中國的女性就開始撲粉了,原料有米粉、鉛粉、珍珠粉、石粉等。唐代國力繁盛,女性妝容也較為多樣,如以鉛粉為主的白妝、以胭脂為主的紅妝,以及桃花妝、飛霞妝、酒暈妝、啼妝、淚妝等。
      古代女子對眉形的修飾也很重視,而畫眉的材料則是“石黛”。唐代時,畫眉已經形成風尚。唐代時眉毛的樣式也很多樣,有十多種,如柳葉眉、月眉、闊眉、八字眉等。
      說起唐代女子,很多人首先就會想到高高的發髻。歷史上,唐代女子的發式非常多,光有名字的就有兩百多種。梳在頭頂的發髻稱為高髻,是盛唐時最流行的一種。
      不過,高髻對發量的要求非常高,難道唐代的女性都不脫發嗎?其實,唐代女性也有佩戴假發髻的習慣,這種假發髻稱為“義髻”。據說,楊貴妃就有戴假發髻的愛好。
      唐朝不流行戴耳環?
      除了妝容發型,女性的飾品也很重要。在《長安十二時辰》中,很多女性服飾都很華麗,但她們都沒戴耳環。
      這不是劇組的失誤,而是來自真實的歷史。據《中國歷代婦女妝飾》一書,冶金技術產生后,耳環才出現,最初大多由青銅制成。但唐代女子不尚穿耳,也無耳環,雖然在個別唐墓中發現一些耳環,但多為少數民族遺物。
      到了宋代之后,穿耳之風才開始盛行。北方少數民族普遍有帶耳環的習慣,連男子也流行穿耳。
      特別的扇子——麈尾
      劇中還出現了一個特別的器物——麈尾,這是一種在扇面周圍加裝獸毛的扇子。一般認為,麈尾是魏晉時期士人談玄論道的代表器物,有人認為,其產生年代要早一些。
      麈尾一般用于在清談中分清主次,也可以祛掃蚊蠅,消暑解熱。此外,它還是一種身份的象征,只有身份尊貴之人才能夠手執麈尾。
      唐代時,麈尾還在士大夫中流行。劇中,拿著麈尾的就是太真道人嚴羽幻,原型為楊玉環。但隨著時代的變遷,宋代以后,麈尾逐漸退出人們的生活,而是代之以扇子、拂塵等。(完)

    編輯:秋痕

    中國歷史上最強盛的朝代之一:唐朝(2)

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