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  • 當前類別:首頁 >> 新版國學 >> 歷史 >> 隋唐五代 >>  >> 人物
    隋朝開國皇帝楊堅因何要“薄葬”自己

    發布時間: 2011/12/1 16:56:17 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 論劍歷史門戶網
    文字 〖 〗 )

    楊堅,弘農郡華陰(今屬陜西)人,漢太尉楊震十四世孫。589年,隋文帝遣兵揮戈南下,滅亡了割據南方的陳朝,統一了全國。同年,琉球群島歸降隋朝,突厥可汗尊楊堅為“圣人可汗”,表示愿為藩屬永世歸順,千萬世為圣朝典牛馬。隋文帝結束了中國長期混亂的局面,征服各族蠻夷部落,使中國又回到了和平年代。他開創先進的選官制度,發展文化經濟,使得中國成為盛世之國。文帝在位期間,隋朝開皇年間疆域遼闊,是人類歷史上農耕文明的巔峰時期。 


        楊堅在開國之初勤于政事,勵精圖治,使國家人丁興旺,國庫殷實,促成了“開皇之治”的局面,是歷史上比較有作為的君主。隋文帝楊堅娶獨孤氏,生有五個兒子:長子楊勇、次子楊廣,接著是楊俊、楊秀和楊諒。581年,楊堅代周稱皇帝建立隋朝后,立楊勇為太子,封楊廣為晉王。 


        楊勇自幼好學,性情溫厚,擅長辭賦,頗得楊堅的喜愛。按著“立嫡立長”的原則,楊堅稱帝后立楊勇為太子。楊勇被立為太子之后,軍國政事及死刑以下的刑罰,都讓他參加裁決。凡政事有不妥處,他都提出不同意見和糾正辦法,文帝多贊同,常常采納他的意見。但是楊勇性格厚道、坦直、為人耿直倔犟,不會處事,喜歡排場。文帝楊堅嚴于律己,寬以待人,尚節儉,反對奢華,對楊勇的這種作風很不滿意。他教訓太子楊勇說:“統治天下,未見有奢華而能長久的。你身為太子,首先應該崇尚節儉。” 


        有一次,百官來朝,楊勇設樂受賀,文帝很反感。從此,文帝楊堅對楊勇的恩寵逐漸衰薄。加上獨孤皇后不喜歡長子楊勇,而偏愛次子楊廣。太子楊勇的妃子元氏是獨孤皇后選定的。元家也是北朝的大世族,跟楊家門當戶對,因而結親。元氏為人忠厚老實,但容貌平平,而且體弱多病,又不生育,因此得不到太子楊勇的歡心。楊勇以自己沒有兒子為借口,多選側室,多內寵,尤愛姬妾云氏,被楊勇封為昭訓。而元妃因患心臟病,突然病故。獨孤皇后疑元氏之死乃被太子楊勇和云昭訓所害。元妃死后,楊勇請求立云昭訓為正妃,獨孤皇后就是不同意。皇后想另為太子選妃,楊勇說什么也不娶別的女人,就這樣,母子二人僵持起來。皇后更加不喜歡楊勇了,甚至挑撥文帝與楊勇的感情。 


        就在太子楊勇在父皇母后面前越來越失寵的時候,晉王楊廣卻善于矯情飾行。他與其兄楊勇正好相反,楊廣生得儀表堂堂,聰敏好學。待人接物格外謙虛。他知道母親奇妒,因此,晉王府上上下下便做出一番待人謙恭、生活簡樸的樣子。有一次,隋文帝楊堅“突襲”楊廣的府宅察看,眼前的一切讓他嘆一聲舒心的長氣:楊廣的幾個書房休息室,樂器的絲弦大多都斷了,塵灰粘得滿滿的,似已多時不用而徹底棄置了。這一下,他便誤以為皇兒不喜好歌舞伎樂,定能成大器。他甚至再次想起了那次皇兒隨他狩獵遇雨,士兵濕衣而皇兒也不愿穿左右遞上的桐油雨衣,那一幕使作為皇上的他足足感動了許久。這日的巡視,再次堅定了他對皇兒楊廣的信心。 


        這樣,楊廣不僅贏得了父母的歡心,而且也頗得群臣的贊揚,聲譽越來越高。同時,楊廣還暗中指使黨羽楊素等在父皇母后面前盛贊楊廣的功德,并且多說太子楊勇的過錯。就這樣,隋文帝楊堅終于產生了廢太子楊勇、立楊廣為太子的念頭。但廢立是大事,文帝暗中派人觀察太子的行為。有一次,文帝派楊素去探太子,楊素到東宮,特意久停門外,讓太子久等,以激怒之。果然太子非常不滿。楊素回來對隋文帝說,楊勇怨恨楊堅,恐怕要發動叛亂,又說楊勇準備在楊堅離開長安去仁壽宮時,在京城發動兵變,誅殺大臣,還捏造了許多罪名。楊堅聽了這些讒言,對太子楊勇更加猜疑。這時楊廣的心腹太史令袁充認為時機成熟,便假借天象對文帝說:“臣觀天文,皇太子當廢。”文帝信以為真。600年,隋文帝廢太子楊勇為庶人,立楊廣為太子。  


        楊廣利用文帝對太子成才心切與恨鐵不成鋼的復雜心情,挑撥離間,極盡陰險毒辣的手段,終于打倒了楊勇,使自己成為名正言順的太子。 


        仁壽四年(604年)正月,隋文帝離開京師,前往仁壽宮休養,把朝政托付給太子楊廣。年老體弱的楊堅到仁壽宮不久就病倒了,而且病勢日益沉重。為了防備萬一,他命內臣前往京城宣召太子。 

        太子楊廣在左仆射楊素、兵部尚書柳述、黃門侍郎元巖以及護衛隨從的陪同下,星夜趕到仁壽宮,當天夜里就去拜見隋文帝。由于隋文帝在熟睡,楊廣等人向左右宮人詢問了病情,了解了一些情況后,便各自安歇了。第二天一早,楊廣等人再次入見隋文帝。隋文帝躺在床上微睜雙眼,有氣無力地和他們說了幾句話,便吩咐退下。 


        楊廣到了大殿內,心情久久不能平靜。想到隋文帝已病入膏肓,將不久于人世,而自己也將登上皇帝寶座,他按捺不住心中的喜悅,提筆給楊素寫了一封信,詢問隋文帝死了以后,應當怎么辦。楊素看完信后,馬上回了一封,詳細談了隋文帝死后所應采取的各項措施。沒想到的是,楊素給楊廣的這封信被宮人錯送給隋文帝了。文帝看后大怒,痛罵楊廣是不肖子孫。 


        這時,名為服侍父親楊堅,實為等待他死期的楊廣,在花園里碰到了一位絕色女子——隋文帝晚年寵幸的宣華夫人陳氏。陳氏是陳后主的妹妹,生得國色天香,羞花閉月。楊廣見了不由得欲火焚身,獸性大發,企圖逼奸她。隋文帝聽說后暴怒,真正看清了楊廣的真面目,他強撐著從病床上坐起來,口中不停地罵:“像這樣的畜生,怎么能夠托付國家大事!”并且速召柳述、元巖入宮,要他們立即起草詔書,廢掉楊廣,立楊勇為太子。楊素聽說后急忙找到楊廣,將詔諭內容告訴了他,楊廣心急如焚。楊素看到這種情形,便把自己的想法悄悄地講了出來。楊廣聽后大喜,立即下令照辦。 
      

        隨即,楊廣矯詔調東宮兵入衛禁中,將柳述、元巖逮捕,并以東宮衛士全部替換了隋文帝的衛士。這些衛士在大將軍宇文述、郭衍指揮下,封鎖了仁壽宮的全部通道。楊廣又下令說,不經他允許任何人都不得出入仁壽宮。一切布置好后,楊廣派左庶子張衡直入隋文帝的寢宮。張衡讓隋文帝身旁的人全部離開,由他負責照管。宣華夫人陳氏及許多宮女都被趕到了別的房間內。過了一會兒,張衡從文帝寢宮內出來,大聲嚷道:“皇上已經死了,你們為什么不早些報告?”眾人聽了,都嚇得渾身哆嗦,不敢吱聲。其實,隋文帝是被張衡殺死的。據說,張衡走進隋文帝寢宮,將眾人趕走后,就將隋文帝從床上拉起,用刀直刺他的身體,噴出的鮮血將屏風都染紅了,宮外很遠的地方都能聽到文帝的慘叫聲。 


        不久,楊廣即位,這就是歷史上最荒淫無道的隋煬帝。短短十幾年時間,他即斷送了隋文帝苦心經營幾十年的大隋帝國。 


        一代勵精圖治的開國之君隋文帝楊堅就這樣離開了人世間。他的靈柩,實現了最后的歸葬。楊堅的陵寢為泰陵。泰陵位于咸陽城西75公里處的楊凌區五泉鄉雙廟坡村。陵冢前有清代陜西巡撫畢沅所立“隋文帝泰陵”碑。 


        泰陵始建于隋仁壽四年,實際上是楊堅與獨孤皇后的合葬墓。陵冢高27。4米,呈覆斗形,夯筑而成。底部面積為26560平方米。陵冢頂部平坦,呈長方形,東西長48米,南北寬38米。陵冢底部四周已被挖掉3~5米,現殘存東西長166米,南北寬160米。陵冢周圍原筑有夯土城垣,現已基本毀壞,唯北城尚有殘墻,長約130米,最高處1。2米,殘存寬5。5米。夯層清晰,夯窩明顯。經初步鉆探,陵垣東西長756米,南北寬652米,總面積49。29萬平方米。垣墻的四角及中部都發現有大量的磚瓦殘片,應是當時建有闕樓和城門的殘跡遺存。 


        泰陵一如秦漢封土為陵(墳)的建制,然而,也許是隋文帝遺有前囑,這座開國君王的陵墓,遠遠不如秦漢皇陵的規模。而據西漢墓葬制度規定,皇帝即位的第二年,就開始每年從全國稅收中抽取三分之一營造皇帝陵墓,即壽陵。帝王陵園占地七頃,陵穴占地一頃,陵高十二丈,深十三丈,墓室高一丈七尺。有四個墓道,都能通過六匹馬駕的車子。四門埋設暗劍、伏弩機關以防盜墓。死者身穿金縷玉衣、口含玉蟬……  


        那么,隋文帝的陵墓中是否也如漢時墓葬制度規定的,皇帝陵墓必有大批金銀珠寶、稀奇古玩呢?現代部分專家學者經過遍閱籍典以及遍訪泰陵周圍民間鄉里,發現典籍沒有記載有關泰陵隨葬的例證,而當地百姓皆傳說泰陵無寶可盜,言說歷代軍閥、土匪,均至此徘徊,未有收獲。尤其民國時軍閥樊老二、張白英等盜掘法門寺地宮珍寶未成,轉而來到泰陵掘洞以盜,在終無所得之后,只好悻悻離去。 


        楊堅的薄葬遺囑,給了多少盜掘輩以失望和徒勞的嗟嘆。 


        而當歲月的年輪刻到20世紀90年代末,一項舉世矚目的考古發現,再次證明了隋文帝楊堅力倡薄葬的偉大開創。這便是位于陜西關中的仙游寺法王塔地宮的開啟。 


        1998年10月17日中午,中國中央電視臺現場直播法王塔地宮開啟全過程,使好奇自負的現代人對隋朝的帝王陵寢、寺塔廟宇的建構供奉,有了更深一層的了解。 


        舍利塔,為隋仁壽元年隋文帝楊堅詔令建造的。時文帝令全國31州建塔供奉舍利,法王塔正是其中之一。 


        陜西仙游寺法王塔地宮的開啟,撩開了尋覓已久的面紗,幽閉千余年的石函、石碑伴隨著諸多神秘面世。 

        仙游寺位于陜西省西安市西的周至縣,法王塔地宮的發現實為偶然。當時在法王塔拆遷中清理塔基,并未發現有地宮,但繼續往下清理才發現跡象。循跡下挖,終于發現塔基下1。65米處的地宮門洞。 


        地宮頂部周圍露出排列神秘的五塊卵石,1米多寬、2米多高、1。5米長的通道上原來堵滿的卵石已被搬出,卵石中夾雜著古代的殘石構件和地下宮殿石門的殘件。 


        地宮內出土了高0。7米、寬0。4米的宮門兩旁的線刻人物畫像,線條流暢,雕刻精美傳神。地下宮殿往里,宮中放有石函一具,約60厘米見方,高40厘米,外部雕有精美花紋,蓋上放著一只造型優美的陶熏爐。石函左側放著一塊約50厘米見方、厚約10厘米的青石碑,碑兩面刻有銘文,一面是隋《舍利塔下銘》約100多字,另一面為唐《仙游寺舍利塔下銘》約200多字。據文物專家介紹,按記載分析,法王塔和法王塔地宮大約是在仁壽元年(601年)建造的。 


        隋文帝給后人留下了葬奉簡樸的榜樣,卻沒有給后人留下可以奠定考古地位的機會! 


        正如佛語有云:一切的因便有自身的果。真正的答案,恐怕只有隋文帝楊堅知曉。因為他信佛而下令全國31州建塔供奉舍利是真,也因為他提倡儉葬習俗是真,才有今日的沒有讓千萬人看到大批珍寶自塔下滾滾而來的壯觀場面。其實,敬佛崇佛、奉佛事佛的高境界是捧一顆真心就是了,捧金捧銀地大肆鋪張,不是正處于廣積國財、勵精圖治階段的隋文帝楊堅的作為。 

    編輯:劉巖

    杜伏威、輔公祏領導的江淮起義軍
    長孫晟述論(1)

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