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  • 當前類別:首頁 >> 新版國學 >> 歷史 >> 史學 >> 文史博覽
    隋朝興衰啟示錄:誦堯舜之言 行桀紂之事

    發布時間: 2010/11/1 9:35:13 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 廣州日報
    文字 〖 〗 )

    隋煬帝喜讀書著述 其文章文辭奧博 但其行為荒淫無道有如上古亡國之君

    隋煬帝耗費無數人力物力,大規模開鑿運河。(資料圖片)

    隋煬帝楊廣。(資料圖片)

    中國歷史上大一統的短命王朝,前有秦朝,后有隋朝。自統一中國后,秦始皇秦二世父子只享祚14年,加上不敢稱皇帝的子嬰在位的46日,秦朝的壽命也不足15年。隋朝的命運與秦朝十分相似,隋文帝楊堅和隋煬帝楊廣父子只享祚36年,加上當傀儡皇帝的隋恭帝楊侑在位的兩年,隋朝也只有38年的壽命。

    秦朝之所以短命,是因為秦始皇“廢王道,尚詐力”,用打天下的方法治天下,用暴力統治國家,秦二世繼位后,不但沒有矯正秦始皇的錯誤,而是“因而不改,暴虐以重禍”,其治國水平連“庸主”也比不上。

    隋朝的情況則有所不同,隋文帝遠遠沒有秦始皇那么殘暴,在開皇年間,他勵精圖治,改革行政制度,大大加強了中央集權制國家機構的行政效能;創立科舉制度,為寒門階層提供了入仕的機會;他改革府兵制,完成了向“兵農合一”的轉變;他指令高颎、鄭譯等人制訂的《開皇律》,是中國封建法律趨向成熟的標志,成為由唐至清各朝刑律的基礎。楊堅還頒布了均田令,在全國設置轉運倉和義倉儲藏糧食,隋文帝末年全國的儲積,已可供五六十年之用,而長安國庫的絹帛直到唐貞觀十一年(公元637年)還沒有用完。

    楊廣驕矜自用

    重蹈秦朝覆轍

    隋煬帝也比秦二世聰明得多,他才華橫溢,博通經史,上知天文,下知地理,“好讀書著述”,一生“修撰未嘗暫停”。

    隋朝之所以不能長久,不是因為經濟實力不夠雄厚和各種制度不夠完善,而是楊堅父子雖然聰明過人,但都沒有開闊的胸襟和恢弘的氣度。楊堅猜忌群臣,以致“功臣故舊無始終保存者”,甚至對待自己的子弟,也如仇敵一般。而楊廣“恃其俊才,驕矜自用”,不把天下士人放在眼里,聽不進任何人的意見,在位期間窮奢極欲、窮兵黷武,其荒淫的程度比秦二世有過之而無不及,導致隋朝重蹈秦朝滅亡的覆轍,留下了深刻的歷史教訓。

    開皇初年勵精圖治

    天下承平由儉入奢

    隋朝開皇初年,隋文帝勵精圖治,不僅自己勤于政事,還重用高颎、蘇威、牛弘、楊素、賀若弼、韓擒虎等文武大臣,分化突厥,討伐江南,完成了南北統一的大業。

    史書記載,隋文帝“愛養百姓,勸課農桑,輕徭薄賦”,推行均田制后,大大促進了農業生產的發展,隋朝的人口也迅速增加。史書記載,開皇初年人口不足四百萬戶,到大業二年(公元606年)已增加到九百萬戶。

    隋文帝注重勤儉節約,“其自奉養,務為儉素”,乘輿上的物件破了,修補之后再用,平時如果不是舉行宴會,“所食不過一肉”,后宮妃嬪的衣服臟了,洗過再穿。由于隋文帝以身作則,開皇、仁壽年間一般士人不穿綾羅綢緞,不佩金玉之飾,只穿粗布衣裳,佩飾銅鐵角骨。

    節儉風氣的盛行使國家迅速富裕起來,“中外倉庫,無不盈積”,西京太倉、東都含嘉倉、洛口倉、陜州太原倉等儲存的米粟,多的達千萬石,少的也有數百萬石。

    然而,到了開皇后期,天下承平日久,隋文帝開始由儉入奢,追求奢華的享受。開皇十三年(公元593年),隋文帝令楊素等人在岐州營造仁壽宮,征調大批丁夫開山填谷,由于役使嚴急,丁夫死者成千上萬。開皇十五年,仁壽宮建成,隋文帝來到仁壽宮,當時正值盛夏,丁夫死者橫尸路邊,楊素下令堆尸焚燒,隋文帝知道后把楊責罵了一番,后來卻夸獎楊素忠心。

    楊堅晚年“深信佛道鬼神”,下令各地大肆興建舍利塔,耗費財富無數,給百姓帶來沉重的負擔,隋朝的統治基礎開始動搖。

    窮奢極欲魚肉百姓

    窮兵黷武天下騷動

    隋朝仁壽四年(公元604年),楊堅病逝,楊廣繼位,為隋煬帝。登上權力頂峰后,楊廣的本性便表露無遺。他“善屬文”,卻不允許別人超過他,薛道衡死后,他說:“更能作‘空梁落燕泥’否!”王胄死后,他朗誦其佳句說:“‘庭草無人隨意綠’,復能作此語邪!”楊廣自負才學,認為自己天下第一,他曾經對侍臣說:“天下皆謂朕承藉緒余而有四海,設令朕與士大夫高選,亦當為天子矣。”

    楊廣不喜歡別人給他提意見,他曾經對秘書郎虞世南說:“我性不喜人諫,若位望通顯而諫以求名者,彌所不耐。至于卑賤之士,雖少寬假,然卒不置之地上。汝其知之!”如此公開說“不喜人諫”,在古代帝王中恐怕找不出幾個。臣下對他阿諛奉承,楊文十分受落,御史大夫裴蘊,光祿大夫郭衍等人“皆以諂庾有寵”。郭衍曾勸楊廣每五天聽一次朝政,他說:“無效高祖,空自勤苦。”楊廣說:“唯有郭衍心與朕同。”

    楊堅生性節儉,楊廣正好相反,他縱情聲色,窮奢極欲,他每年都出外巡游,從行有大批士兵、官吏和宮女,大業三年的一次巡游,從行者竟達五十萬人之多。沿途郡縣長要負責修整道路,還要供應最精美的食品。

    楊廣好大喜功,窮兵黷武。他不斷征發農民掘長塹,筑西苑,營洛陽,繕離宮,伐木造船,開鑿運河,修筑長城。大的工程要每年要役使一二百萬人,小的工程也要征發一二十萬人。楊廣在位期間數次遠征高麗,轉運兵甲軍糧的數十萬民夫往返于道,晝夜不息,“死者相枕,臭穢盈路。”

    隋煬帝的殘暴統治使百姓忍無可忍,大業七年(公元611年),王薄領導農民在長白山起義,各地農民紛紛響應,六年之后,在各路起義軍的嚴重打擊下,隋王朝土崩瓦解了。

    寵愛楊廣

    廢黜太子

    很多歷史學家認為,軍事經濟實力雄厚的隋王朝之所以短命,與隋文帝一時沖動廢黜太子有關。隋文帝有五個兒子,分別是楊勇、楊廣、楊俊、楊秀和楊諒,此五子均為獨孤皇后所生。身為長子的楊勇在楊堅稱隋王時已被立為世子,楊堅稱帝后變成太子。開皇初年,楊堅叫太子楊勇“參決軍國政事,時有損益,上皆納之”。楊勇性寬厚,“率意任情,無矯飾之行”。楊堅性節儉,楊勇用金銀寶物裝飾戰衣,楊堅見了很不高興。

    有一次適逢節日,百官到東宮祝賀,楊勇設樂受賀,楊堅認為楊勇設樂受賀不合禮儀。自此以后,楊堅對楊勇的恩寵漸衰。另外,獨孤皇后叫楊勇娶元氏女為妃,楊勇對元氏十分冷淡,后來元氏患心臟病死亡,獨孤皇后對此耿耿于懷。

    楊勇失寵,楊堅的次子楊廣便有了機會。楊廣“美姿儀,性敏慧,沉深嚴重;好學,善屬文;敬接朝士,禮極卑屈;由是聲名藉甚,冠于諸王”。楊廣對父母表面上十分孝敬,在隋文帝和獨孤皇后親臨他的家中時把美姬藏匿在密室,只留老丑的婦人在旁侍候。隋文帝見了以為楊廣不好聲色,便產生了改立楊廣為太子的念頭。

    開皇二十年(公元600年)隋文帝不顧高颎等大臣的反對,廢黜太子楊勇,立楊廣為太子。楊廣被立為太子的那一天,天下地震,當時很多人認為這是不祥之兆。(作者: 鐘葵)

    以古為鑒

    隋煬帝有雙重人格,他一方面荒淫殘暴、驕傲自滿,另一方面聰明過人,博學多才。《資治通鑒》記載:隋煬帝“好讀書著述,自為揚州總管,置王府學士至百人,常令修撰,以至為帝,前后近二十載,修撰未嘗暫停;自經術、文章、兵、農、地理、醫、卜、釋、道乃至蒱博、鷹狗,皆為新書,無不精洽,共成三十一部,萬七千余卷。初,西京嘉則殿有書三十七萬余卷,帝命秘書監柳顧言等詮次,除其重復猥雜,得正御本三萬七千余卷,納于東都修文殿,又寫五十副本,簡為三品,分置西京、東都宮、省、官府,其正御書皆裝剪華凈”。另外,隋煬帝自己也寫了不少詩歌文章。后人把楊廣的著作收集起來,編成《隋煬帝集》。

    唐朝貞觀二年(公元628年),唐太宗李世民對侍臣說:“朕觀《隋煬帝集》,文辭奧博,亦知是堯、舜而非桀、紂,然行事何其反也!”魏征回答說:“人君雖圣哲,猶當虛己以受人,故智者獻其謀,勇者竭其力。煬帝恃其俊才,驕矜自用,故口誦堯、舜之言而身為桀、紂之行,曾不自知,以至覆亡。”李世民說:“前事不遠,吾屬之師也。”

    編輯:秋痕

    秦始皇所有后宮女人為何在史書上集體失蹤?(8)
    少數民族簡史——西藏八王

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