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  • 當前類別:首頁 >> 新版國學 >> 歷史 >> 秦漢 >> 漢朝 >> 朝代
    西漢社會各階級的狀況

    發布時間: 2010/8/4 14:35:22 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 引自《中國文物網》
    文字 〖 〗 )
    在西漢封建社會中,基本的階級是彼此對立的地主階級和農民階級。地主階級包括皇帝、貴族、官僚以及一般的地主,是封建統治階級。農民階級包括自耕農、佃農和雇農。手工業者的經濟地位相當于農民。農民和手工業者是主要的被統治階級。商人的經濟地位比較復雜,大商人一般都是大地主,是統治階級的一部分;小商販的經濟地位類似手工業者和自耕農,是被統治階級的一部分。除此以外,還有數量頗大的奴婢,他們的身分和經濟地位最為低下。他們雖然不是漢代封建社會的基本階級,但是在生產中還具有一定的地位。 


        在西漢社會經濟的發展中,各個階級都在一定程度上起著變化。地主階級和大商人迅速擴充勢力,強占民田,役使和盤剝農民,掠奪財貨奴婢,其中一部分逐步發展成豪強大族。農民階級中的自耕農,經過漢初一個較穩定的發展時期后,少數上升為地主,多數則逐步陷入困境,從中分離出大量的人,成為“游食”的小商販,或者成為佃農、傭工和奴婢。 


        地主階級 


        地主階級掌握著政權,擁有大量的土地。居于這個階級最上層的,是以皇帝為首,包括諸侯王、列侯和大官僚(很多大官僚也有列侯或其他封號)的貴族地主。參加過反秦起義,在漢初獲得官、爵的軍功地主,是地主階級中的一個重要階層。皇帝在全國(主要是在直轄郡內),諸侯王在王國內,列侯和其他高爵的軍功地主在封域或食邑內,憑借國家機器,強迫農民繳納租賦,提供無償勞役。中央政權的租賦所入,由大司農掌管,用來養活官吏和軍隊。皇帝還以山川園池市肆租稅之入作為“私奉養”,置少府官主領。最晚到漢武帝時,少府以及一些別的官府開始向貧民出假公田,榨取租稅。武帝置水衡都尉,統一鑄幣是其職能之一,鑄幣贏利亦入少府。元帝時,百姓賦錢藏于都內(大司農屬官)者四十萬萬,同時,水衡藏錢二十五萬萬,少府藏錢十八萬萬。少府、水衡錢供皇帝私奉養者數目十分巨大。 


        地主階級掠奪土地日趨嚴重,官僚地主更為突出。蕭何在關中賤價強買民田宅,霍去病為生父中孺買民宅奴婢,淮南王安后荼、太子遷、女陵和衡山王賜,都侵奪民田宅。成帝丞相張禹買涇渭之間膏腴上田至四百頃,又請成帝賜與平陵(昭帝陵)附近的肥牛亭部地,成帝詔徙亭它所,而以其地賜禹。甚至成帝自己也置私田于民間。西漢中期以后,擁有土地三四百頃的大地主為數不少,個別大地主的土地甚或至千頃以上。如武帝時酷吏寧成買陂田千余頃,哀帝寵臣董賢得哀帝所賜苑田竟至兩千余頃。 


        農民階級 


        西漢政權繼續用戶籍制度控制人戶。舉凡姓名、年紀、籍貫(郡、縣、里)、爵級、膚色、身長、家口、財產(田宅、奴婢、牛馬、車輛等及其所值),都要在戶籍上一一載明。漢代州郡,每年都要通過“上計”,向中央申報管內的戶口數和墾田數。在列入戶籍的編戶齊民中,人數最多的是自耕農民。 


        西漢封建國家對自耕農的剝削,較之秦代有所減輕。但是就西漢生產力水平而言,農民租賦負擔仍然沉重。據文帝時期晁錯的估計,五口之家的農戶,種地百畝,不計副業收入,每年約收粟百石。丁壯日食五升,通家合計,一年食用當占所收的大半。漢制,民年十五至五十六,歲納百二十錢,叫做算賦;七歲至十四歲的兒童,歲納二十錢(武帝時增至二十三錢),叫做口賦。賦錢之重,大大超過三十稅一的田租。漢代農民兵徭負擔也很重。通常的農戶,每戶應服兵徭的男丁約為兩口,為了不誤耕作,就要以每人若干錢的代價雇人代役。農家賣粟納口賦、算賦和雇人代役,所收之粟就所余無幾甚至沒有剩余。進行再生產所需的種子、耕畜、農具等項支出,以及農民衣著、雜用所費,還未計算在內,這些費用能否籌到,就要視副業(主要是紡織)收入的有無多寡而定了。 


        西漢時期,糧食和土地價格因時因地而有不同,但一般說來是偏賤的。糧價如前所述,文景時每石高不足百錢,低則十余錢。田價則關中和洛陽上田,每畝千余、兩千、三千錢不等;居延邊地,每畝約值百錢。但是農民所需耕牛,一頭值數千錢以至萬余錢。西漢耕作,一般是二牛一犋,農戶當備置二牛。馬當時也是耕畜,由于戰爭的需要,更為昂貴,每匹低則四千,高則若干萬。鐵器、衣物和食鹽,價格都不賤。物價的這種不平衡狀態,對于地主、商人的剝削兼并有利,對于農民極為不利。農民賤價出賣谷物,甚至出賣土地,高價購買耕畜、農具和其他必需品,進出之間,損失很大。何況納稅季節,地主、商人乘農民之急,還要將粟價壓而又壓。這也是農民生活困苦的重要原因。 


        還在號稱“無兼并之害”的文景時期,晁錯就尖銳地指明這種危及統治秩序的現象。他說:農家終年辛苦,無日休息,除了納稅服役之外,還會碰上水旱之災,或者是急政暴虐,賦斂不時,朝令暮改,納稅季節,有糧谷的人家被迫半價出賣,沒有糧谷的人家只有倍息借錢。于是有的人就不得不賣田宅、鬻子孫以償債了。這種情況,到武帝以后更為普遍。《鹽鐵論》中賢良、文學敘述農家入不敷出的情況說,田租雖是三十稅一,但加上口賦更徭之役,大概一人之作,中分其功。有時農民盡其所得,不夠應付租賦更徭,只好求之于高利貸。所以百姓雖勤力耕作,仍不能免于饑寒。 


        破產的農民,多數被迫依附于大地主作佃客。大地主大量招納逃亡農民,官吏畏勢,不敢督責,反而加重對窮苦百姓的壓迫。百姓不堪其苦,轉相仿效,紛紛流亡遠去,他們的租賦徭役又被官吏轉嫁給尚未流亡的中等農家。這樣,就出現了未流亡者為已流亡者納租服役的惡性循環。流亡問題越來越嚴重,而豪強地主所招納的佃客和兼并的土地也越來越多。豪強寧成役使貧民至數千家。佃客一般以對分的比率,向地主交納地租。邊地居延,有向屯田卒收取地租的記載,計田六十五畝,收租二十六石,每畝合租四斗。漢代不見佃客免徭賦的法令,佃客還要受徭賦之苦。還有一些破產農民,迫于生計,為傭作糊口。秦末陳勝為人傭耕,起義以后,故人為傭耕者都來軍中謁見。西漢傭工種類,見于文獻的除傭耕、仆役以外,還有采黃金珠玉、治河、筑陵、為酒家傭保等等。武帝□鹽鐵以前,豪強大家冶鐵煮鹽,一般都是招納流亡農民為之,這些人有一部分是雇傭身分。□鹽鐵后,鹽鐵生產除用官奴婢外,還用徭役勞動,由于道遠作劇,農民無法自行服役,不得不出錢雇人代替。雇人所需,一說每人每月兩千錢,一說每月三百錢,后說似近史實。官僚地主甚至憑借權力,雇工而不給傭值。 


        在漢代社會里,雇傭勞動在社會生產中不占重要地位。傭工還要受種種封建束縛,庸和奴的稱謂有時是混同的,表明庸工身分低下。漢昭帝始元四年(前83)詔書里,有歲儉乏食,“流庸未盡還”之語,可見在剝削壓迫稍見緩和,或年景稍佳之時,流亡為傭的人是可以返回鄉里的。商人西漢初年,商人的社會地位低下。西漢繼承秦代重農抑商政策,限制商人。但是,經商是剝削者方便的致富之道,商人通過賤買貴賣,不勞自肥。當時俗語所說:“用貧求富,農不如工,工不如商,刺繡文不如倚市門。”所以商人都用各種手段逃避限制,擴大經營,抑商法令等于具文。文景以后,商人力量有蒸蒸日上的趨勢。晁錯看到這種情況,向文帝說:“令法律賤商人,商人已富貴矣!”西漢前期,出現了許多大鹽鐵商,大販運商,大子錢家。卓氏在臨邛,即山鑄鐵,行銷滇蜀,有奴僮千人。程鄭在臨邛,也以冶鐵致富,同西南地區少數民族交易。孔氏在南陽大規模冶鐵,占奪陂池,致富數千金,多和諸侯王交接。曹邴氏以鐵冶起家,兼營高利貸和運輸,與富有的吳王濞齊名。山東刁間驅使奴隸,逐魚鹽商賈之利。洛陽師史專事販運,車輛成百,遍行諸郡國。宣曲任氏在楚漢之戰時從事糧食囤積致巨富。子錢家無鹽氏在七國之亂時以千金貸給從軍東征的列侯封君,一歲獲息十倍,富埒關中。許多貴族、官僚、大商人鑄錢牟大利,鄧通和吳王濞最有名,所鑄的錢流通天下。上述卓氏、程鄭、孔氏的先人,都是戰國末年東方諸國的大工商主,秦始皇時成為所謂“山東遷虜”,但子孫仍然致力工商。秦漢時期多次遷徙六國貴族于關中,其中齊國的田氏族姓繁衍,世多貨殖,漢代關中富商大賈,很大一部分出于田氏。在西漢社會中,“以末致財”的大商人,雖然家資數千萬乃至成萬萬,但仍須“用本守之”。這就是說,經商致富的人,需要掠奪土地,成為大地主,才能守住產業。所以大商人無不規陂池,求田宅,憑借財富役使貧民。另一方面,大地主、大官僚也多兼營商業,以圖暴利。宣帝時楊惲糴賤販貴,從事糧食買賣。貢禹奏請自尚書諸曹和侍中以上的皇帝近臣,都不許私自經營商業,可見那時大官僚經營商業的普遍。 


        大商人兼并土地,加速了農民的破產流亡。他們還因其富厚,交通王侯,助長分裂割據。因此封建國家和大商人的矛盾依然存在,終于導致漢武帝劉徹打擊大商人的結果。 


        至于人數眾多的小商人,他們有的列肆販賣,有的負貨求售,有的兼為小手工業者自制自銷,有的以車僦載收取運費。他們多數由農民或城市貧民轉化而來,同樣受剝削壓迫,同大商人不同。小商人無法突破抑商法令的限制,而國家的徭役征發,也往往首先落到他們頭上。秦漢的七科謫,即以七種人為對象的謫發遠戍的制度,有四科是謫發商人或他們的子孫。 


        奴婢 


        奴婢有官奴婢和私奴婢,數量頗大。 


        官奴婢的來源,一為罪犯本人以及重罪犯的家屬沒官為奴者;一為原來的私奴婢,通過國家向富人募取或作為罪犯財產沒官等途徑,轉化為官奴婢;一為以戰俘為奴。官奴婢用于宮廷、官府服役,用于苑囿養狗馬禽獸,也用于官府手工業、挽河漕、筑城等勞作。西、北邊地諸苑養馬的官奴婢有三萬人。元帝時長安諸官奴婢游戲無事者,有十萬人之多。私奴婢主要來自破產農民。他們有的是被迫自賣為奴;有的是被人掠賣為奴;有的是先賣為“贅子”,無力贖取而為奴。官奴婢由統治者賞賜給私人,即轉化為私奴婢。邊境少數民族人民,有為統治者掠為奴婢者.大官僚、大地主、大商人的奴婢成百成千。陳平以奴婢贈陸賈,數達一百。市場出賣奴婢,通常是與牛馬同欄。賣奴婢者在市場上給被賣奴婢飾以繡衣絲履,以圖高價。奴婢價格,一萬、兩萬不等。經營奴婢買賣的大商人,每出賣一百個奴婢,獲利約二十萬。漢代有不許任意殺奴以及殺奴必須報官的法令,也有因違令殺奴被罰的事例。但在通常情況下,主人對奴婢有“專殺之威”,奴婢生命實際上是沒有保障的。 


        私奴婢除從事家內服役以外,也有許多被驅使從事農業、手工業生產或商業活動。季布為朱家奴,被用于田間勞動;張安世家僮七百,都有手工業技術;刁間的奴隸被驅迫運輸商品。王褒所作《僮約》,列舉了奴隸服勞役的項目,包括家內雜役、種田種園圃、放牧、作工、捕魚、造船、修屋乃至經商等等。《僮約》雖然是一篇游戲文章,但所列奴僮為主人服役項目,當符合西漢社會實際狀況。 

        漢代奴隸在生產中還占有一定地位,是奴隸制時代的“遺產”。封建統治者無法消除它,無法制止破產的農民淪為奴婢。殘酷的封建法律,也還以相當的規模和速度繼續“制造”奴婢。統治者只能把它納入封建制軌道,使之為地主階級服務。因此,從奴隸制殘余中獲得利益的,正是那些大官僚、大地主、大商人,而不是一個獨立于他們之外的奴隸主階級。 
    編輯:趙茂

    漢代的“反劫質”立法
    西漢官場上的虛偽面目:披著儒學“羊皮”的狼(1)

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