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  • 千年荔枝灣 荔枝何處尋

    發布時間: 2019/7/14 0:07:04 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 廣州日報
    文字 〖 〗 )

    清十三行時期商人潘長耀的花園,緊靠荔枝灣涌。


      清代畫家夏鑾所繪《海山仙館》圖,“荷花世界,荔子光陰”如在眼前。(圖/fotoe)

    千年荔枝灣 荔枝何處尋
       水里“長”出商業繁華地 早在唐代已種荔枝 上世紀40年代起“荔枝紅”逐漸黯淡 
      廣州水城記憶系列
      本欄目由廣州日報獨家與廣州市國家檔案館聯合推出,逢周四刊出,敬請關注。
      說起荔枝灣,我們總會想起“一灣春水綠,兩岸荔枝紅”的詩句,那么,荔枝灣的荔枝何時開始出現,又因何消失不見?
      文/廣州日報全媒體記者王月華  
      追溯前生
      水里長出繁華地 一灣清溪如琉璃
      “落雨大,水浸街,阿哥擔柴上街賣,阿嫂出門著花鞋,花謝花襪花腰帶,珍珠蝴蝶兩邊排……”這是每個在西關長大的孩子都會唱的童謠。
      西關“水浸街”的記憶與它的歷史息息相關,因為這個保留著老廣州人太多美好記憶的地方,大多是從水里一點點“長”出來的。不信,你讀一讀曾昭璇、曾憲珊先生寫的《西關地域變遷史》,其中說到,西關是古時平原不斷向珠江北岸淤漲的結果,兩千多年前,從今光復中路以西到黃沙路華貴路的下西關仍在水下;到了1500年前的六朝時期,今天的上下九一帶已有較多陸地出現;到了唐代,今天的西關地區大部分已成陸地,宋代又往南“長”了一點,明代再往南“長”一點,才有了今天西關的輪廓。如果我們嘗試用“蒙太奇閃回”的方法,來回想西關的模樣兒,想象它從水鳥低飛、荒無人煙的沼澤變成“煙水十里、荷塘處處”的田園,再漸漸擁有“十里紅云、八橋畫舫”的繁華綺麗,直至今日車水馬龍的現代都市,難免還是有點滄海桑田的感慨。
      如果把我們深愛的老西關比作一個溫柔婉約的女子,那荔枝灣涌無疑是她項上最美的珍珠之一。其實,在古文獻里,人們常滿含深情地把它稱為“西溪”。這條溪流的源頭在北江,從今西郊游泳場入口,蜿蜒流過西關,經黃沙而出珠江,“一灣春水綠,兩岸荔枝紅”成了代代流傳的詩句。而在清代文人樊封筆下:“是溪也,近帶兩村,遠襟南岸,水皆漂碧,滑若琉璃,即古所稱荔枝灣也。背山臨流,時有聚落,環植美木,多生香草。榕楠接葉,荔枝成蔭,風起長寒,日中猶暝……”
      在這個碎片化閱讀流行的時代,我當然不能強求你細細體味這些蘊含詩意的句子,不過,你若愿意讀完后閉上眼細細體味,或許眼前就會出現清幽寧謐,如山水畫一樣的風景,給炎炎盛夏帶來幾許清涼。
      千年荔枝紅
      南漢:皇宮御苑 大擺“紅云宴”
      荔枝灣的荔枝是何時出現的呢?據史料記載,唐咸通年間(公元861~875年),嶺南節度使鄭從儻在荔枝灣建了一座園子,遍種荔枝,他的老友曹松游覽以后,還寫下了“亂結羅紋照襟袖,別含瓊露爽咽喉”的句子。
      真正對荔枝灣進行大規模開發的,是五代時期南漢國的幾任國主。他們在城里城外大修宮苑,荔枝灣一帶也不例外。這一座名為“昌華苑”的離宮遍種荔枝,每到荔枝成熟的季節,南漢國主就與妃嬪在此坐著畫舫游玩,品嘗荔枝,美其名曰“紅云宴”。不過,除了首任國主外,南漢國的其他幾位國王都是只講享樂的主,宋兵一到城外,末代國主一把火燒了昌華苑,“紅云”遍地的御苑就此灰飛煙滅,只在“昌華大街”等地名里留下了蛛絲馬跡。
      據《水潤花城 千年水城史話》一書的記載,清代荔枝灣的荔枝種植業達到鼎盛。用清代文人熊景星的話來說:“居人以樹荔為業者數千家……紅云十里,八橋畫舫,游人萃焉”,這大概也就是樊封寫下“榕楠接葉,荔樹成蔭”的時候。可以想象,荔枝灣涌有熱鬧的一面,也有寧謐的一面,真像個善于變化的俏姑娘,讓人怎么看也看不厭。
      清代:碧水倒映藏書樓 荔枝香里有書香
      “紅云十里”的水鄉風光自然吸引了許多富豪過來“買地置業”,修起了一個個清麗雅致的園林,而且名字都很好聽,像“聽松園”“杏林莊”“海山仙館”之類,其中,尤以海山仙館最為知名。這座“紅蕖萬柄,風廊煙溆,迤邐十余里”的私家園林極盡奢華,主人潘仕成是晚清年間廣東最富有的鹽商。海山仙館內有一湖,方圓近百畝(約6.7公頃),湖上種滿荷花,園內古木參天,廣種荔枝。這里當然“談笑有鴻儒,往來無白丁”,而“荷花世界,荔子光陰”是最得大家歡心的風景。
      不過,潘仕成是一個很有追求的人,他專門在園子里建了個書坊,印出了令當時知識界耳目一新的《海上仙館叢書》,這套叢書除了收羅中國歷代先賢的著作之外,還包括了古希臘和歐洲文藝復興后的學術巨匠。歐幾里得的《幾何原本》、《測量法義》,利瑪竇的《同文指算》、《寰容教義》,英國醫生合信所著、開廣州西醫治療之先的《全體新論》等,絕對可以說是“開風氣之先”,在全國無出其右。
      書香伴隨荔枝香,“荷花世界,荔子光陰”更多了一份文化底蘊。
      紅云成追憶
      菜農聚集開墾 “荔枝紅”漸行漸遠
      宋代詞人辛棄疾有一句流傳千古的感慨:風流總被雨打風吹去。海山仙館也逃不開這樣的命運,潘仕成晚年時,因經營鹽務出現巨大虧空,被官府抄了家,海山仙館漸漸變成斷瓦頹垣。后來,在其故址上,一些富商名流與知識精英先后蓋起了彭園、荔香園、靜園、小畫舫齋、夏葛女醫學堂、端納護士學校等園林與學校,對廣州的文化傳承與新學普及貢獻甚巨,其中的故事,我們留到以后細說。
      如今且回到一開始問的那個問題,荔枝灣的荔枝是何時消失的呢?據《荔灣文史資料》所載,日軍占領廣州后,荔枝灣涌出河口的珠江水道被封鎖,荔枝灣日漸蕭條,之后由于城區人口日漸增加,許多貧民菜農開始聚集于此,種菜比種荔枝來錢容易,于是,岸邊的荔枝被砍得越來越多;此外,20世紀40年代,荔枝灣涌畔建起了化工廠與印染廠,空氣、土壤與水污染給荔枝帶來了致命傷害,如此一來,千年“荔枝紅”便漸漸黯淡下去。雖說工業化的腳步無法阻擋,但想來總有些感慨,也促使我們對“人與環境”的相處作更多思考。

    編輯:秋痕

    茄子怎么來到中國的? 原產印度西漢末已到四川

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