<rt id="8egoe"></rt>
<acronym id="8egoe"></acronym>
<tt id="8egoe"><wbr id="8egoe"></wbr></tt>
  • <acronym id="8egoe"><noscript id="8egoe"></noscript></acronym>
    <tt id="8egoe"><div id="8egoe"></div></tt><object id="8egoe"><noscript id="8egoe"></noscript></object>
    <sup id="8egoe"></sup>
    <tt id="8egoe"><div id="8egoe"></div></tt>
        國學首頁|國學私塾 |古代數術| 古代航海| 古代農業| 古代發明| 古代交通| 科技資訊| 天文地理| 論壇
    □ 同類目錄 □
  • 天文地理
  • 古代數術
  • 古代航海
  • 古代農業
  • 古代發明
  • 古代交通
  • 科技資訊
  • □ 同類更新 □
  • 熱帶風暴“木恩”影響華南等地 京津冀等地局地超40℃
  • 手機OLED屏調查:真傷眼睛嗎?能否避免靠運氣?
  • 緬甸琥珀:滅絕物種“博物館”
  • 《科學美國人》評出2019年十大突破性技術
  • 中科學家率先實現全光量子中繼
  • 人馬座星流 有了第一張3D畫像
  • 中科院公開發布應用科技成果
  • 中日科學家合作發現迄今最高能量的宇宙伽馬射線
  • 全國首次 黃埔海關截獲有害雜草種子“東方大蒜芥”
  • 祁連山守護者:行程近10萬公里收錄千種野生植物素材
  • 李兆申院士被指多篇論文涉抄襲 中國工程院:正調查
  • 中國近視患者超4.5億 帶來社會經濟成本6800億元
  • 新版第五套人民幣為何沒有新版100元紙幣同時發行?
  • 點穴到底是不是忽悠人?武術、中醫專家為你揭秘……
  • 在二維空間,生命也可能存在?

  • 緬甸琥珀:滅絕物種“博物館”

    發布時間: 2019/7/5 0:27:12 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 科技日報
    文字 〖 〗 )
    緬甸琥珀:滅絕物種“博物館”  

      本報記者 操秀英  

      一篇有關緬甸琥珀化石的專訪近日登上《科學》雜志封面。文章報道了中國科學家從緬甸礦區和珠寶市場搶救化石進行研究的故事。  

      事實上,近年來,國內外關于琥珀研究的成果層出不窮。琥珀為何備受古生物學家青睞,緬甸的琥珀又為什么能成為科研人員的香餑餑?記者就此采訪了相關專家。  

      穿越2000萬年至3億年的“時光膠囊”  

      琥珀是2000萬年至3億年前的針葉樹等多種樹木所分泌出來的樹脂,經過地殼的變動而深埋在地下,逐漸演化而成的一種樹脂化石。包裹著各類古生物的琥珀化石,一直是古生物學家倍加珍視的“時光膠囊”,具有重要的研究價值。  

      中國地質大學(北京)副教授邢立達說,琥珀是一種樹脂化石,當黏稠的樹液形成時可將一些動物和植物包裹其中,其歷史可追溯至上千萬年前。這些神秘的琥珀將揭曉遠古時代令人驚異的場景,它仿佛是“時空定時器”,能將上千萬年前某一瞬間定格保存下來,讓人們透過這種神秘的化石洞悉遠古秘密。琥珀的科研價值主要體現在對史前古生物學的研究等方面,包括動物、植物和同時代的古環境等等。例如,通過對琥珀中昆蟲的研究,科學家們能夠了解生存于遠古不同時期昆蟲化石群落的面貌和當時的生存環境,研究昆蟲群落的生活習性與不同的物種。  

      邢立達說,最早的昆蟲化石發現于距今3億多年的泥盆紀中期。但無論是泥盆紀還是古生代和中生代的陸相沉積中,昆蟲化石在受到沉積物的壓力和地球內部的溫度影響后,只剩下幾丁質外殼。這些生物遠不如琥珀中的昆蟲和植物保存得那么完好。  

      科學家們都從琥珀里找到哪些寶貝?邢立達說,從某種程度上講,從樹木上滲出的樹液就像一種微型瀝青,一旦動物置身其中,就沒有逃脫的可能性。琥珀領域誕生了成百上千的科學論文。科學家們在琥珀中發現了各種蜥蜴、鳥類、昆蟲、蜘蛛等數不清的陸生動物,甚至還有螃蟹或蠑螈等水生動物。  

      邢立達發表的文章里面,有關白堊紀的脊椎動物數量驚人:在琥珀里面發現保存了97節椎骨的一段幼蛇、大約2厘米大的蛙類、還殘留有血紅蛋白的帶羽毛的恐龍尾巴,多個不同發育階段的古鳥等等。  

      其中最著名的是“緬甸曉蛇”。2018年7月,邢立達及合作者在對琥珀的研究中,首次發現蛇類標本,這條有0.99億年高齡的緬甸曉蛇,向世界揭示了一個前所未知的新物種。同時,這也是全世界首次在琥珀中發現新生蛇,將它“凍齡”的琥珀還表明古代蛇類曾在海洋邊緣的森林中生活過。  

      緬甸曉蛇的意義又遠不止演化地位這么簡單。琥珀里的昆蟲、蟲糞以及植物殘片說明,緬甸曉蛇曾生活在森林環境中。回顧同時代的蛇類化石出土環境就會發現,當時絕大部分蛇類都是水生的。可以說,它是人類目前明確已知的,唯一一種生活在陸生森林的中生代蛇類。  

      好琥珀哪里找?到緬甸去  

      正如《科學》雜志所說,緬甸是琥珀研究者的寶地。  

      邢立達解釋說,緬甸琥珀之所以能成為極好的研究對象,是因為其特殊的地質條件及形成年代久遠。“那里曾經是一片熱帶叢林,樹木粗壯,分泌的樹脂特別豐富,粘住了很多小動物。最重要的是,這里的琥珀形成于約9900萬年前,保留了白堊紀中期生物的珍貴記錄。這是大多數琥珀產區不具備的優勢。”邢立達說,而比緬甸琥珀產區年代更為久遠的西班牙、黎巴嫩等產區,則要么產量很低,要么琥珀的品質不好。  

      緬甸琥珀含有豐富的包裹體,主要有脊椎動物、昆蟲、植物、菌類、土壤等。緬甸琥珀是世界上最著名的白堊紀琥珀,蘊藏著目前已知最豐富的白堊紀生物群。緬甸琥珀形成年代比較久遠,產出了不少價值很高的蟲珀,里面的昆蟲大多很完好,而且是那些已經滅絕品種。  

      近幾十年里,科學家共在當地琥珀中發現500多個無脊椎動物、脊椎動物、植物和真菌。據《科學》雜志報道,僅2018年,科學家就在緬甸琥珀中發現了321種保存完好的古生物新物種,這一年的發現就已經占到目前總發現數(1195種)的四分之一。  

      有人說,在緬甸琥珀中發現的古生物多樣性,沒準會超過以前化石發現中的恐龍數量的總和。“你可能覺得難以置信,不過事實的確如此。”加拿大阿爾伯特大學的古生物學家菲利普·柯里說。  

      最新的消息是,中國科學院南京地質古生物研究所現代陸地生態系統起源與早期演化研究團隊,在一枚保留有多種化石類群的緬甸琥珀中,發現了水生動物菊石。這是古生物學家初次在琥珀中發現菊石,為揭秘億年前熱帶海濱生態情況打開了新的窗口。  

      但是,受戰亂影響,再加上當地開掘技術相對落后,緬甸胡康河谷這一產區的琥珀產量近年來嚴重下滑。此外,商業行為也在大量消耗那些極具科學價值的琥珀。由于市場更加偏愛質地純凈的琥珀,包含內容物的部分往往被切割下來,成為邊角料。有些地區會把這些邊角料磨成粉末,添加進線香等產品;甚至切割成更小的顆粒,填充在枕頭里,據說有保健作用。  

      邢立達說,如何保護琥珀,保護這些陳列著滅絕物種的“博物館”,是一個需要全人類共同面對的問題。這也正是《科學》雜志封面報道的主旨所在。  

      高科技加持 看清琥珀內動物標本  

      雖然小小的琥珀中藏著久遠的歷史,但要想搞清楚其中的秘密也非易事。科學家們都是用什么方法來一探究竟?  

      在轟動一時的世界首枚恐龍琥珀的研究中,邢立達團隊為了明確這段尾巴是古鳥還是恐龍留下的,利用了高分辨率顯微斷層掃描技術(顯微CT)對該琥珀中的動物進行了分析,獲得了包含椎體結構等的高精度三維重建圖像。  

      確實,科學家們為了在不破壞琥珀形態的情況下觀察內部標本,用上了各種高科技手段。一些研究人員開始采用同步輻射成像法,比如利用高密度X射線照射標本內的化學元素,使之能散發出特殊波長的熒光。此外,還可以通過共軛焦雷射顯微鏡,可以讓標本內部的細小結構成像。  

      邢立達團隊及合作者在此前研究琥珀中的古鳥等脊椎動物時,除了顯微CT,還用了多種無損成像和分析手段來研究它,比如北京同步輻射裝置(BSRF)的硬X射線相襯CT、X射線熒光成像和X射線近邊吸收譜、上海同步輻射裝置的硬X射線相襯CT等都派上了用場。他們通過對CT數據的重建、分割和融合,無損得到了隱藏在羽毛、皮肉內部的動物骨骼的高清3D形態。
    編輯:秋痕

    《科學美國人》評出2019年十大突破性技術
    手機OLED屏調查:真傷眼睛嗎?能否避免靠運氣?

    |關于我們 | 招聘信息 |聯系我們 |友情鏈接 |相關介紹 |免責申明 |
    copyright©2006 Power By confucianism®  中國國學網版權所有    蜀ICP備16005458號
    大发pk10 www.38775tt.com | www.647377.com | 4018.com | www.461.cc | 3616p.com | www.26878y.com | 353458.com | www.xpj68.com | a1654.com | www.5508.am | p888p888.com | www.81678h.com | wfcp111000.com | www.33598j.com | 8449spj.com | www.76wcp.com | r67890.com | WWW.578535.COM | 3340.com | WWW.859163.COM | d8504.com | www.808523.com | www.899500.cc | www.762933.com | www.3066oo.com | www.183209.com | www.32031b.com | 63960000.com | www.03gcw.com | nn3336.com | WWW.253477.COM | 566365.com | WWW.385771.COM | www.62500.cc | t67890.com | WWW.549657.COM | 5657.com | WWW.578535.COM | www.71585.com | www.032154.com | www.99094z.com | 3178f.com | WWW.352009.COM | 3775i.com | www.910997.com | www.607967.com | www.50052u.com | www.yl1981.com | 3mgmmmm.com | WWW.257523.COM | t45638.com | WWW.443757.COM | www.38345w.com | www.106036.com | www.39500h.com | 2324ttt.com | www.799497.com | www.hg89998.com | 0057a.com | WWW.931593.COM | 8742a.com | www.324277.com | www.bj799.com | sha0555.com | WWW.917966.COM | www.68993226.com | 7726bbb.com | WWW.587448.COM | www.04567k.com | 4997s.com | WWW.514933.COM | df8z.com | 89777s.com | WWW.247558.COM | 922545.com | www.401265.com | www.21202v.com | 5856sss.com | www.694010.com | www.tyc19988898.com | 9123567.com | www.968566.com | www.hg0295.com | 876q.com | www.208780.com | www.23636n.com | e58955.com | 5607799.com | www.033.la | www.5966vvv.com | dz881.com | WWW.720723.COM | www.4972p.com | 2381b.com | WWW.655985.COM | www.4694x.com | vv56988.com | WWW.296965.COM | www.js20016.com | 3679mm.com | www.186357.com | WWW.558422.COM | 00778f.com | 8827rr.com | WWW.856181.COM | www.r3410.com | 2060044.com | WWW.15814.COM | www.8998786.com | 68228d.com | 04013.com | WWW.686284.COM | www.http://09991.com | www.5522b.cc | www.448910.com | www.1035g.com | zhcp64.com | 30007.com | WWW.74618.COM | ff38648.com | www.hm5522.com | 272h.net | 2021x.com | www.374311.com | WWW.30378.COM | www.http://489633.com/ | 88552007.com | WWW.22694.COM | vip0778.com | www.263299.com | vip67778.com | www.372839.com | WWW.23178.COM | WWW.680735.COM | WWW.930966.COM | www.c1336.com | www.33588y.com | www.22062b.com | www.t639.com | www.880085.com | www.6022888.com | www.262018.com | www.30350i.com | www.28000p.com | bet3659096.com | feicai020.com | k45638.com | 2018mxc.com | 13558.com | 54241111.com | b72227.com | 2757l.com | 88851y.com | 22299hh.com | 55331o.com | 111wns88.org | www.938751.com | WWW.567318.COM | WWW.144540.COM | WWW.357306.COM | WWW.190917.COM | WWW.393804.COM | WWW.690881.COM | WWW.260209.COM | WWW.70827.COM | www.40288g.com | www.cgcp.com | www.b35yy.com | www.90644.com | www.8967u.com | www.bwinyz26.com | www.28850.com | www.365101.com | www.5854e.cc | WWW.8708.COM | WWW.524712.COM | WWW.527004.COM | WWW.133874.COM | www.584499.com | www.667537.com | www.375990.com | 636384.com | 1222e.com | 6033t.com | 11.sb | xpj5590.com | r7742.com | 650pj.com | www.6776jj.com | www.pjc77.vip | www.919654.com | www.36787d.com | WWW.362855.COM | WWW.301336.COM | WWW.604131.COM | WWW.629057.COM | WWW.881208.COM | www.881803.com | www.097638.com | P35y.com | zb6288.com | 3559.com | 22556n.com | 3424v.com | www.4694l.com | www.12345605.cc | www.265679.com | www.3479v.com | www.c5637.com | WWW.212537.COM | WWW.622806.COM | www.088186.com | 9964k.com | hgvipvip3.com | 55cc8332.com | www.1754y.com | www.99094v.com | www.782w.com | WWW.806516.COM | www.348077.com | www.6116111.com | 518cp.com | 6704888.com | ds00000.com | www.77731g.com | 22749.com | 3522h.vip | www.cp9518.com | www.16065l.com | WWW.377954.COM | WWW.65728.COM | www.guocai667.com | 115504.com | a32355.com | www.682260.com | www.80065h.com | WWW.628163.COM | WWW.355124.COM | www.340477.com | hhvip87.com | t444c.com | 5855zz.com | www.957004.com | www.ascp3.com | WWW.654661.COM | 666kj.cc | 2267g.com | 61327700.com | www.45598y.com | www.3416f.com | WWW.374755.COM | www.081502.com | judingbo1.com | 88903636.com | www.63606b.com | WWW.20462.COM | WWW.707213.COM | www.055982.com | hgc388.com | js5657.com | www.35700cc.com | www.ya466.com | WWW.450477.COM | 55331w.com | 0860dh.com | www.0057g.com | www.50080c.com | WWW.929369.COM | www.137916.com | sj2883.com | feicai0563.com | www.xpj448888.com | www.hj7987.com | www.901176.com | 23233p.com | 256777n.com | www.110503.com | WWW.174119.COM | www.708330.com | 386345.com | 31191111.com | www.500cd.com | WWW.184784.COM | 1294.com | 923960.com | www.6867.cc | WWW.870964.COM | 5622s.com | 3552a.com | 3078z.com | www.80075g.com | WWW.369801.COM | 3614a.com | 22293232.com | www.66332m.com | WWW.618059.COM | 198488.com | 2613e.com | www.86267g.com | WWW.594633.COM | 1458n.com | 4631188.com | www.3478m.cc | www.483864.com | yh22444.com | www.89155.com | WWW.29466.COM | 5622n.com | yh88135.cc | www.91233g.com | WWW.338079.COM | 07789.com | www.4136w.com | WWW.35953.COM | bo9.co | n47479.com | www.8499y.com | WWW.511925.COM | 365188.bet | www.06820y.com | WWW.357056.COM | dzyy634.com | 2267e.com | www.1035f.com | www.345576.com | 4165s.com | www.16878a.com | www.838669.com | 0208kk.com | www.senurcare.com | WWW.495531.COM | ylzz1115.cc | www.77783yh.com | WWW.274277.COM | 11989m.com | www.5588kk.com | WWW.698947.COM | 5588336.com | 5099aa.com | www.3126r.com | www.75538a.com | 58moneys.com | www.2222y.cc | www.45599.com | 3089g.com | WWW.789771.COM | www.79288.com | ylg2002.com | WWW.911111.COM | 4195t.com | www.y948y.com | WWW.395866.COM | www.101698.com | 818132.com | WWW.337448.COM | 3156eee.com | www.hg98097.com | WWW.879835.COM | 7003pp.com | www.jz9688.com | WWW.551990.COM | xxxx0122.com | www.9996ii.com | www.570477.com | 33560055.com | WWW.897464.COM | 20188j.com | www.87708.vip | WWW.907581.COM | 225605.com | www.1466z.com | www.533721.com | 50099y.com | www.mcw4.com | www.long8.com | www.858958.com | WWW.216888.COM | bet3658.com | www.68993227.com | www.178952.com | p888123.com | WWW.757329.COM | 6033b.com | www.2418h.com | www.047788.com | 633248.com | WWW.743455.COM | 7720g.com | www.9155f.com | 7792o.com | www.js9595.com | www.550377.com | y2921.com | WWW.679234.COM | 93922x.com | www.36788b.com | bet577i.com | www.www | www.376513.com | www.5008637.com | WWW.521410.COM | d5429.com | WWW.747654.COM | 1366y.com | www.6664331.com | www.4398811.com | www.4058rr.com | www.641377.com | 1654hh.com | WWW.156990.COM | 507dh.com | WWW.194899.COM | 20772233.com | www.25688e.com | 87665z.com | www.065915.com | 333488.com | www.pj66119.com | www.773618.com | 8742z.com | WWW.756095.COM | 2506y.com | WWW.552027.COM | v72227.com | WWW.555483.COM | 99306o.com | WWW.512988.COM | 33013.com | WWW.730565.COM | 18040.com | WWW.488266.COM | 02019991.com | WWW.187113.COM | 0234i.com | WWW.674268.COM | yhyunnan.vip | WWW.391456.COM | 111pj8.cc | WWW.908226.COM | 66671i.com | WWW.182841.COM | 3640zz.com | WWW.903723.COM | 4955.com | WWW.911140.COM | 1916x.com | WWW.707747.COM | 61326611.com | WWW.292559.COM | 4636699.com | www.901025.com | www.9737ww.me | www.603154.com | www.38345p.com | www.295126.com | www.p3410.com | 99.0267788.com | www.jsdc9555.com | v93901.com | www.66653h.com | 818555.vip | www.ck09.com | 2685.com | WWW.418702.COM | 777.bcbm777.com | www.655903.com | www.3577.ag | www.46568a.com | www.0270b.com | 10050714.com | WWW.649388.COM | 54240033.com | WWW.480736.COM | agg0606.com | www.599160.com | www.63606s.com | 272ee.net | www.9646o.com | w2649.com | WWW.63222.COM | tcdtf.com | WWW.543292.COM | www.10999a.com | 30019x.com | www.25688p.com | 2021eee.com | WWW.763477.COM | 65005w.com | www.308388.com | www.88801.com | 588ppp.cc | WWW.262231.COM | zhcp23.com | www.346377.com | www.725518.com | hd9909.com | WWW.275605.COM | 97618a.com | www.137105.com | www.0270p.com | c444000.com | WWW.860819.COM | www.57800b.com | 88995003.com | WWW.29058.COM | 3163.com | www.085533.com | www.71399z.com | 3552t.com | WWW.755444.COM | www.69567j.com | 30179900.com | WWW.541541.COM | www.6776ff.com | 2546z.com | WWW.318578.COM | zhcp32.com | 40788.com | www.585hc.com | tz6.com | www.957588.com | www.hg3222.com | 3559nnn.com | www.672950.com | www.16065l.com | lc99a.com | www.902261.com | www.63683.com | 7893w10.com | www.979233.com | www.993956.com | 0206.com | www.768996.com | www.bet73p.com | zzcp668.com | www.513061.com | www.41518k.com | 88851c.com | www.195880.com | www.5177.cc | 2190m.com | 6698510.com | WWW.71038.COM | www.747855.com | yh888w.com | WWW.682727.COM | www.4521p.com | 58898.com | WWW.707951.COM | www.x4449.com | 3568ww.com | www.498166.com | www.2934y.com | 9149m.com | 5360qq.com | WWW.107699.COM | www.06820b.com | 7742d.com | WWW.41317.COM | www.68993276.com | 61325544.com | 408383.com | WWW.742563.COM | www.9737jj.com | 118888222.com | www.912199.com | www.50054n.com | 5214v.com | 3156eee.com | WWW.585415.COM | www.56011i.com | 4018t.com | www.108095.com | WWW.318935.COM | www.06617.com | 2767f.com | www.568565.com | www.tctx6.com | www.998855l.com | ylzz4446.com | www.876061.com | www.3890u.com | www.7793h.com | bcylc999.com | www.902261.com | www.21czj.com | www.cpdjl.com | 93888js.com | www.633720.com | www.hx1199.com | www.80969z.com | 553955.com | www.359215.com | WWW.854877.COM | www.9951331.com | lecaih.com | www.401273.com | WWW.93706.COM | www.5719c.com | 52599.com | 55899h.com | WWW.113407.COM | www.5086z.com | www.255837.com | 5019kzc.com | www.60108e.com | WWW.755538.COM | www.48330z.com | 68963888.com | 73567tg1.com | www.257588.com | WWW.67218.COM | www.7240t.com | 500000719.com | 6446vip.com | www.332760.com | WWW.180111.COM | www.954321x.com | 97297i.com | pjguangdong.com | www.020724.com | WWW.144886.COM | www.15355v.com | www.361550.com | 35ss.vip | 79964d.com | WWW.653810.COM | WWW.29807.COM | www.087x.com | 2595w.com | vip169.com | www.803399.com | WWW.592677.COM | WWW.421774.COM | www.xpj8856.com | 2141133.com | zz1916.com | www.163135.com | WWW.440184.COM | www.86267j.com | www.hg8jj.com | 8977hh.com | 3990077.com | www.029509.com | WWW.247355.COM | www.sygj4.com | www.52062d.com | d00351.com | 51133r.com | bcylc11.com | www.955484.com | WWW.858480.COM | www.77801k.com | www.35252c.com | 8036o.com | dzj0707.com | 6641q.com | www.346918.com | WWW.322888.COM | WWW.648968.COM | www.68203dd.com | www.5099xx.com | 2643e.com | 9101909.com | 3405www.com | 118lc.com | www.937065.com | WWW.655755.COM | www.004ac.com | www.1122800.com | www.1100xpj.net | by309.com | kkk40033.com | l2146.com | 5001q.com | www.446769.com | WWW.141808.COM | WWW.912763.COM | www.15355n.com | www.youxi1314.com | www.38345c.com | 28483000.com | 51133dd.com | hbfzq.com | 55967r.com | www.43055.com | www.620316.com | WWW.879411.COM | WWW.364397.COM | www.1777ac.com | www.ampj3434.com | www.63606u.com | www.2350.com | 0747pp.com | qmbc6.com | 5219l.com | 5099kk.com | 3078n.com | js648888.com | www.43804381.com | www.460689.com | WWW.529195.COM | WWW.50590.COM | WWW.5643.COM | WWW.150144.COM | www.9155h.cc | www.36166hh.com | www.t63568.com | www.jz9588.com | 233235.com | 50000022.com | wx11b.com | 272m.net | 40033aa.com | dafa89.net | 66458y.com | 86811nn.com | 5647z.com | 11668331.com | 8520n.com | www26567.com | www.52072b.com | www.363991.com | www.606694.com | www.910355.com | WWW.501721.COM | WWW.728003.COM | WWW.26162.COM | WWW.565453.COM | WWW.594163.COM | www.856659.com | WWW.255065.COM | WWW.787684.COM | WWW.879011.COM | WWW.18160.COM | WWW.554663.COM | WWW.885696.COM | WWW.457811.COM | WWW.757309.COM | WWW.495900.COM | www.608986.com | www.768997.com | www.960883.com | www.955334.com | www.976909.com | www.929709.com | www.927233.com | www.810526.com | www.771219.com | www.570477.com | www.339208.com | www.197802.com | www.108067.com | 283344.com | 898904.com | 7720776.com | 0747q.com | fff3405.com | 188qq66.com | 00119193.com | s72227.com | 4288f.com | 4025m.com | fc9098.com | 3379a.com | 50020099.com | www.rycp048.com | www.bwinyz38.com | www.2566y4.com | www.3a005.com | www.9646t.com | www.18399.com | www.76520q.com | www.5522b.cc | WWW.677100.COM | WWW.744229.COM | WWW.47169.COM | WWW.378441.COM | www.701496.com | www.178952.com | www.liuhe123.com | 3009d.com | 10050714.com | 3405dd.com | 25228.am | p888.com | www.b35ii.com | www.hg0083.com | www.7239m.com | www.4tdc.com | WWW.450477.COM | WWW.781721.COM | WWW.606717.COM | www.363991.com | m00351.com | 3667yh.com | 8757056.com | pjhainan.com | www.x948x.com | www.79095c.com | www.ya2019e.com | www.2109w.com | WWW.836207.COM | WWW.75705.COM | www.645326.com | www.66444.com | 3616f.com | 7yuhe.com | 667766f.com | www.4972z.com | www.3522 | www.5441m.com | WWW.638001.COM | WWW.258707.COM | www.206883.com | 3222n.cc | 69445588.com | r35151.com | www.7334g.com | www.1466a.com | www.gai50.com | WWW.49746.COM | www.901175.com | www.345118.com | 3416m.com | t2490.com | www.5146z0.com | www.win1236.com | www.6769a1.com | WWW.557450.COM | www.550263.com | 39990033.com | ddd444000.com | 55899g.com | www.sha8000.com | www.790711.com | WWW.856488.COM | WWW.517813.COM | www.43131d.com | 2776.com | bowang005.com | www.28000n.com | www.3978m.com | WWW.929071.COM | WWW.647744.COM | www.492018.com | pjzhejiang.com | 228888j.com | www.pjgw99.com | www.3668y.com | WWW.487680.COM | www.494969.com | 9420v.com | v62.com | www.v3v4v5.com | www.53900k.com | WWW.722419.COM | www.424988.com | 3242q.com | 3663yh.com | www.4996jc.com | www.9818j.cc | WWW.162789.COM | www.xg289.com | g15666.com | q8q9.com | www.1754q.com | www.flff5.com | WWW.862065.COM | www.xinyc2.com | bet89360.com | 3844ww.com | www.300726.com | WWW.223754.COM | www.379969.com | 7634245.xyz | 500000477.com | www.5856881.com | WWW.345724.COM | www.330875.com | 1665m.com | xpj2229hh.com | www.606756.com | WWW.590673.COM | www.33598e.com | 69446666.com | www.018381.com | www.35155h.com | WWW.205152.COM | 423342.com | 5856rr.com | www.9895g.com | WWW.447369.COM | www.701524.com | dz825.com | bb888bb888.com | www.1855ff.com | WWW.628593.COM | 80368hh.com | wuxixhh.com | www.js89z.vip | WWW.39328.COM | www.031079.com | nn500o.com | www.4996xm.com | WWW.187113.COM | www.366746.com | 45939904.com | www.99113g.com | www.18kpl.com | www.925771.com | 56787ii.com | 1591ddd.com | www.9478l.com | www.996563.com | 0343i.com | www.20199ee.com | www.3126l.com | www.855608.com | spj04.com | www.5099xx.com | WWW.79136.COM | www.366292.com | xf0371.com | www.820016.com | WWW.746292.COM | 66kj.com | 365vip100.cc | www.ya2019z.com | WWW.434155.COM | 17979455.com | www.79500v.com | www.fcyl2.com | www.404977.com | 36400066.com | www.7737ee.com | WWW.111073.COM | cai88.cc | 6647a.com | www.hx5566.com | www.178982.com | x6982.com | www.6939g.com | WWW.292633.COM | 316z.cc | www.4196e.com | WWW.53958.COM | 73999a.com | www.7793j.com | WWW.780838.COM | 777848.com | 9560.com | www.5086e.com | www.397411.com | c86226.com | www.0601.com | www.912162.com | hgcn.com | www.68993221.com | WWW.362717.COM | 3678yy.com | www.s94600.com | WWW.56730.COM | 1005022.com | www.l7764.com | WWW.54238.COM | ben6.com | www.8645001.com | WWW.511383.COM | 6220ss.com | www.9895w.com | WWW.898765.COM | 7811ss.com | www.60886y.com | WWW.768212.COM | 3405bbb.com | www.60886c.com | WWW.16258.COM | 5443n.com | www.789583.com | WWW.893930.COM | 77606v.com | www.09088.com | www.543122.com | y68bb.com | www.3126u.com | 1100tk.com | ms888.com | WWW.751310.COM | 3788y.com | www.055260.com | WWW.687490.COM | 80567i.com | www.954321r.com | www.606694.com | 54240033.com | www.ascp7.com | z03.com | www.1064e.com | WWW.478765.COM | 5130ag.com | www.16065r.com | www.338057.com | g35151.com | WWW.798499.COM | 36402222.com | www.42070018.com | www.775979.com | 00ff8331.com | WWW.834321.COM | 0055886.com | www.45598e.com | WWW.252126.COM | tb2223.com | www.hd5658.com | jj1331.com | www.u063801.com | WWW.333385.COM | t2490.com | WWW.165068.COM | nn500v.com | www.55074.com | www.528335.com | 3379zz.com | WWW.460042.COM | 9506z.com | www.86450.com | www.895095.com | www.808888j.com | WWW.624234.COM | 54248800.com | www.cpkk.com | 570580.com | www.881543.com | www.210955.com | www.35252f.com | WWW.355299.COM | hh8159.cc | WWW.665945.COM | 38989z.com | www.4569.am | www.81678e.com | www.sscb3.com | WWW.146755.COM | 87578007.xyz | WWW.808354.COM | hfgszc580.com | www.50732j.com | 112j.net | www.89386e.com | www.376369.com | www.20199ee.com | WWW.549788.COM | 52688m.com | WWW.803866.COM | 6175gg.com | www.hf5880.com | 68228c.com | www.99677k.com | 11yy8331.com | www.js58678.com | www.178723.com | www.gg55826.com | WWW.36410.COM | 3136bb.com | WWW.15787.COM | 9649r.com | WWW.503886.COM | 45888a.com | WWW.920705.COM | 3846fff.com | www.33gpc.com | 1596e.com | www.24020.cc | 80892ii.com | www.87668y.com | 3421r.com | www.71399k.com | 5622f.com | www.52303z.com |