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  • 《科學美國人》評出2019年十大突破性技術

    發布時間: 2019/7/5 0:26:41 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 科技日報
    文字 〖 〗 )
    《科學美國人》評出2019年十大突破性技術  

      今日視點  

      實習記者 胡定坤  

      日前,著名科普雜志《科學美國人》公布了2019年十大突破性技術榜單。榜上有名的既有“高深莫測”的新型核反應堆和DNA存儲,也有“平易近人”的新型肥料和食品包裝。科技日報記者梳理后發現,這十大技術可分為清潔環境、革新能源、促進健康、便捷生活與顛覆創新五個大類。  

      清潔環境類技術  

      可生物降解塑料和智能肥料技術能夠使環境更清潔。  

      塑料垃圾不僅能在環境中存在數百年,還會釋放有毒化合物。之前以玉米、甘蔗或廢油脂為原料生產的可生物降解塑料,性能難以與普通塑料相比。現在,英國倫敦帝國理工學院、芬蘭梅特根生物技術公司等正在研究使用低成本離子溶劑和生物酶處理纖維素或木質素,生產新型可生物降解塑料,有望助力解決塑料垃圾問題。  

      農用肥料中的氮會在大氣中形成溫室氣體,磷則進入河流,引發藻類等生物過度生長。海法集團和ICL特種肥料等公司利用先進的材料和制造技術,改進膠囊類緩釋肥料外殼,使其成為“智能肥料”,能根據土壤溫度、酸度或養分改變釋放率。相比需要人工智能、數據分析和大量傳感器的所謂“精確農業”,這種方式更易推廣。  

      革新能源類技術  

      新型核能和大規模儲能技術有望帶來新的能源革命。  

      現有的商業核反應堆使用的幾乎都是將鈾芯堆積在鋯合金內的核燃料棒。如果鋯過熱,它會與水反應產生氫氣并爆炸,這一問題導致了美國三島和日本福島的核事故。正在研制的“第四代”核反應堆將用液態鈉或熔鹽代替水來傳遞熱量,避免產生氫氣。美國則提出建設小型模塊化反應堆以提高安全性。新型燃料和小型模塊化反應堆有望帶來核電復興。  

      風能和太陽能是主要的可再生能源,但需要大規模的儲能技術存儲“備用能量”,以便在晚上或無風的時候使用。之前,抽水蓄能和鋰電池是主要的儲能方式,分別存在成本高和儲能時間短的缺點。美、韓、中、日等國正在研制大型流電池和氫燃料電池,有望解決上述問題。  

      促進健康類技術  

      治療癌癥和阿爾茨海默氏癥的新靶點、先進的食品跟蹤和包裝技術能使人類更健康。  

      近年來,科學家發現了一種名為“本質無序蛋白”(IDP)的特殊蛋白質,一旦其不能正常工作,就會導致癌癥或神經退行性疾病。隨著科學家對IDP的研究愈發深入,工業界開始關注以IDP為靶點的治療方法。IDP、Graffinity、Cantabio等制藥公司都在研究相關藥物,為治療癌癥、阿爾茨海默氏癥等疾病帶來新的手段。  

      據世界衛生組織統計,全球每年約有6億人食物中毒,其中42萬人死亡。新技術能夠有效緩解這一問題。IBM公司基于區塊鏈技術的云平臺IBM Food Trust能夠幫助食品行業快速溯源有毒食品,而TimeStrip UK和Vitsab International等企業研制的帶有傳感器的食物標簽,能夠幫助人們確定食品是否在適當的溫度下儲存和是否開始變質。  

      便利生活類技術  

      人類生活會因社交機器人和遠程協同呈現技術更便捷。  

      人工智能技術使工程師能夠將心理和神經科學轉化為算法,讓機器人能夠識別聲音、手勢、眼神和情緒等以適應人們的需要。Softbank Robotics開發的人形機器人Pepper足以識別人臉和基本情感,并通過“胸部”的觸摸屏對話,已經用來提供酒店登記、機場客戶服務,擔當購物助理等。此外,越來越智能的治療機器人和玩具機器人,對老年人和孩子也很有吸引力。  

      遠程協同呈現技術能夠使不同地點的人克服空間的隔閡近距離接觸。增強現實(AR)、虛擬現實(VR)及5G通信技術的發展使之成為可能。“X大獎”基金會已經發起了1000萬美元的“ANA阿凡達”大獎賽,旨在“將人的感覺、行動和存在實時傳送到一個遙遠的位置,從而帶來一個更為緊密的世界”。微軟等公司也在進行相關研究。未來3—5年內,遠程協同呈現技術將迎來突破。  

      顛覆創新類技術  

      以金屬為材料的微型透鏡和以DNA為載體的數據存儲技術是榜單中最具顛覆性的技術創新。  

      一想到鏡頭材料,人們最先想到的就是玻璃,誰能想到金屬?但傳統的玻璃切割和玻璃彎曲技術很難制造出微型透鏡,這限制了光學產品的小型化。現在,科學家使用金屬替代玻璃制造透鏡,并且發現金屬透鏡無需分層就能消除色差,在解決散光等導致圖像失真和模糊的像差問題上也有所突破。金屬透鏡使設計、制造微型光學器件成為可能。  

      人類正面臨嚴重的數據存儲問題。到2020年,全球每年需要4180億個1TB容量的硬盤才能容納全部數據。相比之下,一個邊長約1米的DNA立方體就足以容納等量數據。事實上,DNA數據存儲技術并不遙遠。2017年,哈佛大學的研究人員將一只手的圖像記錄到了大腸桿菌的基因組中。華盛頓大學和微軟研究院的研究人員已經開發出一個完全自動化的系統,用于編寫、存儲和讀取DNA編碼的數據。  

      (科技日報北京7月3日電)
    編輯:秋痕

    中科學家率先實現全光量子中繼
    緬甸琥珀:滅絕物種“博物館”

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