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  • 氰化物隕石帶給地球生命種子?

    發布時間: 2019/7/4 0:16:07 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 科技日報
    文字 〖 〗 )

    氰化物隕石帶給地球生命種子?  

      今日視點  

      本報記者 劉 霞  

      關于生命起源的一個永恒的謎是,生命是如何從非生物化學過程中產生的?一項最新研究指出,氰化物或許在其中起了重要作用。  

      說到氰化物時,大多數人腦海中浮現的是間諜電影的場景:一個人將藥丸吞下,口吐白沫奄奄一息。但這項新研究稱,氰化物也可能是構成地球生命所需分子必不可少的化合物,它可能“乘坐”隕石來到地球上,參與了氨基酸和堿基等有機化合物的非生物合成,最終導致地球生命的誕生。  

      據美國趣味科學網站6月28日報道,美國博伊西州立大學邁克爾·卡拉漢帶領團隊進行了一項新研究,對一組特殊的原始隕石樣本進行分析,發現其中均含有氰化物。在現代細菌和古細菌體內名為氫化酶的酶中,他們也發現了同樣類型的結構。這可能表明,地球生命要么來源于隕石,要么早期地球的地質情況形成了同樣的氰化物。  

      在隕石中尋找氰化物  

      2011年,卡拉漢和同事發表了一篇論文稱,他們在隕石中發現了核堿基——一類含氮堿基。之后,他們開始在太空巖石中尋找氰化物。  

      像鳥嘌呤或腺嘌呤一樣,核堿基是DNA的基本組成部分。卡拉漢說,核堿基的化學反應及其母體小行星似乎依賴氰化物作為反應物。但他并不確信能在隕石上找到任何氰化物,即使它們曾經存在過。他說,氰化物具有極強的反應性,很可能在降落到地球之前就已被消耗和轉化完。  

      但研究共同作者、博伊西州立大學分析化學家凱倫·史密斯對此并不認同。  

      于是,他們收集并測試了隕石樣本——大部分在南極洲發現。其中5顆隕石是一種特殊的碳質球粒隕石,被稱為CM球粒隕石,它包含有核堿基以及其他生物基本構成成分,如氨基酸。其中一塊CM球粒隕石是著名的“默奇森隕石”(Murchison meteorite),這塊隕石于1969年9月28日降落于澳大利亞維多利亞州默奇森附近。  

      卡拉漢說,令人驚訝的是,每個CM球粒隕石都含有氰化物;而包括據信擁有外星生命證據的火星隕石在內的其他隕石,均不含氰化物。“當你研究這些原始隕石時,就像跳進一臺時間機器,你可以回到過去并研究這些古老的材料,然后你會發現這些氰化物與生命和古代生物學的聯系。”  

      氰化物或參與地球生命起源  

      氰化物似乎已經在太空中存活了數十億年,并且有些來到了冰冷的南極洲。研究人員發現,氰化物和一氧化碳形成配體后與鐵離子結合,在隕石中形成穩定的化合物。卡拉漢說:“這是非常經典的無機化學。”  

      卡拉漢補充說,無論氰化物如何穩定,它也可以從隕石中釋放出來,這使它有望成為生命起源故事中一個有趣的參與者。在地球誕生初期,當太空隕石經常撞擊地球時,水和紫外線“攜手”,可能會讓氰化物從隕石中釋放出來。通過這種方式,隕石讓可用的氰化物增加,使最終產生活細胞的化學反應得以發生并順利進行。  

      卡拉漢說,另外還有一種可能性:早期地球的氰化物可能是在地球上土生土長的。但如果是這樣的話,它可能會以與在隕石上非常相似的方式形成。另一個有趣的驚喜是,隕石中的一氧化碳、鐵和氰化物同地球上一些最古老生命群、古菌和細菌的部分酶之間具有奇怪的相似之處。  

      所有細菌和古細菌都含有氫化酶——通過分解氫氣為細菌和古細菌提供能量的酶。這些酶的活性位點與隕石中的氰化物結構相同,卡拉漢認為,“也許這些隕石化合物是這些活性位點的前體”。  

      這一點目前還沒有得到證實,但研究小組計劃進一步研究隕石化學。他們把希望寄托于美國國家航空航天局(NASA)的“源光譜釋義資源安全風化層辨認”(OSIRIS-Rex)探測器,它將從小行星“貝努”(Bennu)采集樣本并在2023年將樣本送回地球。  

      卡拉漢說,“貝努”可能是一個CM球粒隕石天體。他們將從這些樣品中尋找氰化物,努力揭示“貝努”與已知隕石之間的聯系,并試圖了解氰化物等前生物化合物的潛在傳遞途徑,這些化合物可能有助于在早期地球或太陽系其他天體上萌發生命。  

      (科技日報北京7月1日電)

    編輯:秋痕

    光線能以螺旋方式傳播 科學家揭示光的新屬性
    橘紅與化橘紅 究竟有何不同

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