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    唐朝地方團練部隊:鮮為人知的南方的“土軍”(5)

    發布時間: 2019/7/4 0:19:33 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 中華歷史網
    文字 〖 〗 )
    另外,關于南方的史料中頻頻出現所謂的額外之兵的記載,它從一個側面表明南方兵額的嚴重不足。譬如《全唐文》卷773李商隱《為滎陽公論安南行營將士月糧狀》中談到桂州的軍隊:“臣當道系赦額兵之一千五百人。內一千人散于西原防遏,三百人扭在邕管行營。入界內分捉津橋,專知鎮戍。計其抽用略無孑遺。至于堅守城池,備御倉庫供丞執掌,傳遞文書,并是方圓衣糧,招收驅使。其安南行營將士,皆是額外人”。對于南方邊境的桂州尚且如此,至于南方其余的“順地”,它們的情況應該與桂州差異不會太大。
        唐中葉以后,南方地區“土軍”軍力之寡弱往往達到令人難以置信的程度。現以和州為例,《劉禹錫集》卷8《和州刺史廳壁記》載:“案見戶萬八千有奇,輸緡錢十六萬,……州師五百……十又六戍”,可見此時的和州大約有兵五百人。而咸通十一年十二月,龐勛的義兵攻打和州時,剌史崔雍不戰而降,由于他“命軍士皆釋甲”,除“所愛二人為子弟乞全之,其余惟賊所處”,造成“殺士卒八百余人”,從這里可以看出,和州所擁有的士兵數量也不過一千人左右。而同年的九月,龐勛軍隊攻打宿州時,“宿州戍卒五百人出戰,……而城中無復余兵”,則可斷言宿州的軍隊當在五百人上下。宣宗大中十三年,兵力匱乏的明州不過“有眾百人”,整個浙西也僅僅“見卒不滿三百”;面對著擁眾三萬之眾的裘甫所部,諸道雖紛紛出兵增援,增援的兵力也不過維持四百人的規模而已;而此時的宣歙道不過以“三百人赴之”。大中二年的邕管只有軍士三百,桂管不過保持在一千五百人的規模。至于“控淮、肥之川,壓荊、楚之要”的壽州由于處于江淮漕運的特殊地位,其兵力稍眾,但也不過“帶甲四千人”。據有的學者估計南方的軍隊,其數“大體而言,每州軍額顯然不多,一般不超過一千人”。另,文宗太和年間,雖有鄂岳訓練“萬卒”的記載,但其真實性頗成問題,通過對南方藩鎮、諸州擁兵的情況分析,我們可以作一個大致的推斷,筆者認為這不過是文人恭維的溢美之辭而已。即便鄂岳“萬卒”的記載屬實,也與北方地區,譬如忠武、河東等“地雄兵眾”之地動輒精甲六萬、十萬比較起來也相去甚遠,故南方“土軍”軍力寡弱之狀況,由此可見一斑。
        
        更為嚴重的是南方“土軍”戰斗力的低下,且由來已久。安史之亂期間,嶺南西道之兵北調馳援中原戰場,造成轄內“溪洞夷僚”乘勢作亂,他們攻陷城邑,占據會府所在地容州,由于朝廷不愿增加“土軍”的兵力,因此“淪陷”之地長期不能收復,致使包括元結在內六任經略使不能到官署上任,“皆寄理滕州或寄梧州”。其后的藩帥,不得已以私財募兵會府才得以克復。更有甚者,有的地方“盜不盈百,即州將失守”。如果說這只是特定時期的個案,那末,在隨后的時間里,南方的狀況應該會有所改觀,而事實上,南方土軍“人不習戰、甲兵朽鈍”的情況一直在持續,且有愈演愈烈之勢。如在前述咸通元年(860)的裘甫之亂中,“土軍”的虛弱之態再次暴露無遺。裘甫初起之時,有眾不過百人,而當時的浙東觀察使鄭祗德令討擊副使劉勍、副將范居植領兵三百,與臺州合兵一處共討裘甫,但是人數頗占優勢的官軍卻慘遭敗績,范居植戰死、劉勍僅以身免。后來,鄭祗德重募新兵與裘甫之眾再戰,結果仍是“官軍大敗,三將皆死,官軍幾盡。”又,唐代號稱雄藩的荊南,在面臨義軍大兵“寇境”危殆的形勢下,“以文學進,不知兵”的節度使楊知溫竟然以“不設備”之狀態去“應付”王仙芝的咄咄怪事,其結果必然是荊南鎮的失守。
        
        總之,唐代中后期南方土軍的“團練化”、土軍統領官員的“文職化”、土軍軍力的“薄弱化”是該地區地方軍事最為突出的問題,從中央方面而言,正是由于這些原因使得南方的養軍費用低廉,從而能夠以更大的財力支持中央,同時減輕地方獨立化問題的困擾,有利于唐中央對地方的控制;就地方而言,正是由于軍力的薄弱與戰斗力的低下,使得南方的社會動動,本地的軍隊難以撲滅,不得不借助于外部軍事勢力的加入,同時為唐末南方社會普遍動動埋下了禍根。 
    編輯:秋痕

    唐朝地方團練部隊:鮮為人知的南方的“土軍”(4)
    唐帝國鮮為人知的武裝力量:營州高句麗武人集團(1)

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