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    唐朝地方團練部隊:鮮為人知的南方的“土軍”(4)

    發布時間: 2019/7/4 0:19:36 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 中華歷史網
    文字 〖 〗 )
    除了“鞔漕、通商”的淮南,“地連襟帶”與“控諸蜀塞”的山南(東西),“鎮荊蠻、壓江漢之上游,總吳楚之都會”的荊南,“郡連戎焚,地接巴黔”與“統押近界諸蠻”的兩川外,這些藩鎮在唐中期以后除了個別時期,它們一直設置節度使。然而處于溪洞夷僚雜居之地的嶺南西道、容管、桂管、安南采取異于內地的經略使。其余南方的藩鎮由于其“國用取資之地”的地位,在代宗大歷初年以前,為適應重建和平的需要,紛紛易節度為觀察。根據吳廷燮的《唐藩鎮年表》卷四——卷七所載,南方地區包含山南東道、山南西道、荊南、淮南、兩浙、宣歙、江西、福建、鄂岳、湖南、黔中、劍南東川、劍南西川、嶺南東道、嶺南西道、容管、桂管、安南,共有藩鎮十九個,其中長期設置節度使的有荊南道、淮南道、山南(東西)道、劍南(東西川)六道,約占藩鎮總數的31.6%;長期設置經略使的有嶺南西道、容管、桂管、安南四道,約占總數的21.1%;而長期設置觀察使的有兩浙、宣歙、江西、福建、鄂岳、湖南、黔中、嶺南東道九道,約占總數的47.3%,考慮到唐代觀察使設置的區域性特點,如果除了南方的江淮之地,北方也只有京畿、陜虢長期設置,此外再難尋覓其它地方設置觀察使的蹤影,由此不難明白南方觀察使的主體地位以及藩鎮廉帥化的特征。
        
        其二,藩帥任職人員的文職化。它不僅體現在中央歷次頒布的詔制中,屢屢不厭其煩地提到觀察使的儒者身份,如朝廷曾經稱贊桂管觀察使嚴謨“操行端和、文學精茂”;浙西觀察使李棲筠“秉禮義之宗,其學博而精,其文簡而當”;桂管觀察使鄭亞的“識洞古今,情惟端愿,富三冬之精學,控六變之雄文……早異甲乙之科,雅有詞華之榮”;浙東觀察使李訥“實為君子之德,華以才士之詞”;黔中經略使李坰“文行器業,……洽聞善政”等等,不一而足。
        
        強調觀察使的文人身份,當然決不限于朝廷的詔制,有時在頗具私人性的詩文、題詠、祭文、行狀、碑銘、甚至筆記小說中也不忘突出其清流的出身、文人的旨趣、或者作為儒臣的經歷。如江西觀察使裴休“敷文行政教之余,得六度三乘之奧”;福建觀察使李誨“州良牧帥甌閩,曾是西垣作諫臣”;湖南觀察使李當“自中書舍人,乘廉車問俗湖南”;福建觀察使何士干:“文場摧鋒,結綬王畿,抬遺丹階,危言匪躬”;廣(嶺)南西道節度使鄭愚“雄才奧學,擢進士第,揚歷清顯”。在這文章里觀察使幾乎成了“儒帥”的代名詞,從中不難窺知中央在南方推行以觀察使為藩帥的良苦用心。需要強調的是,南方為數眾多的雄藩巨鎮,即便是以“文武之柄,方鎮為大”的節度使也多由文人擔任,如東川節度使盧商“亟長憲者,委登廉車,總十連之阜殷,澄六郡之風俗”;嶺南節度使乞于泉,在元和朝“以文學德行升為甲科,朝拂纓,抑揚官閥,張羽儀為省署,煥辭藻于綸闈”,期望他能安撫黎庶,且“宣愷悌之風,著循良之跡”;山南東道節度使鄭涯,曾為御史大夫,他“自晨明曉對,建禮晨趨,參密命于北門,演綸言于西掖。屢解交于都坐,兼尹正于二原,……洎登車按部,仗節總戎,移風佩犢之饒,潔己掛魚之操”。這從另一個側面證實了“自艱難以來,(江淮)未嘗受兵,節度使皆以道德儒學”的真實可信。
        
        至于那些地位重要的藩鎮,如淮南、西川、浙西等鎮更是文人的天下,節度使幾乎非宰臣不授,故成了宰相的回翔之地。如《全唐文》卷753杜牧《淮南監軍使院廳壁記》說“故命(淮南)節度使,皆以道德儒學,來罷宰相,去登宰相……自貞元、元和以來,大致如此”。又,淮南節度使杜亞“識精體要,學究宗源。回翔省闥,表彌綸獻納之勤;踐歷方州,著清凈循良之稱”。經略使當然也不例外,如稱容管經略使李景仁“儒學上流,簪纓雅望。自還郡印,復坐卿曹”。
        
        文學進身,他們“詞學為門,員廉作吏”,而以武將的身份被任命為刺史極為罕見,如《文苑英華》卷411李谿《授康君立等諸州刺史制》稱:“敕:‘康君立等,夫文吏以儒術自進,而牧人養物,固其所也;而論者猶或嘉之。而爾等各以軍功干郡政,可謂難矣’”。綜上所述,不難想見南方諸道的藩帥,不論他們是節度使、觀察使抑或經略使,甚至包括管內州郡的刺史,他們由儒臣、循吏出任決非個案,而是具有相當的普遍性,由此可知南方“土軍”統領官員明顯的文職化傾向。
        
        三、唐代中后期南方“土軍”軍力的“薄弱化”
        
        南方“土軍”軍力長期薄弱化,它不僅表現在軍隊數量的寡弱,更表現戰斗力的低下。自唐初以來,軍事上,著重強調軍隊“虛外守內”的職能,只在國家政治中心的關中、國防前線的河東、河北之地屯集重兵,而南方地區則很少設置軍府,因此,這里的兵力始終薄弱。安史之亂后又一向是唐王朝的“順地”,長期以來忠實地執行中央的政策法令,無論在大歷之際的“軍鎮逃亡者不補”、“定諸州兵”還是元和、長慶之際的“銷兵”無不如此。盡管,長慶及隨后進行的銷兵在很大程度上并沒有得到真正落實,但對于中央直接控制下的南方地區,則完全是另外一種情景。大和三年十一月,文宗雖念念不忘要求諸道、諸州將吏的“務從簡省”,這在全國大部分地區徒為一紙空文的情況下,給人的感覺似乎專為南方而準備的。如:大和中,山南東道節度使李洧上奏“準詔停減軍卒千余人”;浙東同樣“準詔,停老弱官鍵,收衣糧”。這些材料有力地說明了南方對中央銷兵政策是認真執行的,由此造成原本兵力不多的南方,其“土軍”的軍力進一步的薄弱化。
    編輯:秋痕

    唐朝地方團練部隊:鮮為人知的南方的“土軍”(3)
    唐朝地方團練部隊:鮮為人知的南方的“土軍”(5)

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