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    唐朝地方團練部隊:鮮為人知的南方的“土軍”(3)

    發布時間: 2019/7/4 0:19:39 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 中華歷史網
    文字 〖 〗 )
    在唐代南方“土軍”中還存在一種所謂的“子弟”者,最初在開天之際,因形勢所需,在邊地臨時性征集當地的丁壯“亦常令教習,每年秋集本軍,春則放散”。在安史之亂期間,南陽節度使魯炅,曾率“嶺南、黔中、山南東道子弟五萬人屯葉縣北”;德宗時浙江東西道節度使韓混、憲宗時東都留守呂元膺、文宗時徐州節度使王智興都曾設置大量的子弟,說明子弟不僅在安史之亂期間,而且在和平時期德、憲、文朝也大規模地存在,足見子弟是南方兵役的重要承擔者。又《舊唐書》卷133《李晟傳》與《新唐書》卷180《李德裕傳》均有史料關于南方子弟的記載。張澤咸認為,子弟是與鄉兵相近的一種地方兵役形式;而張國剛則認為子弟明顯“具有團結兵的特征”。這里,兩位學者對子弟的認識雖略有歧義,但他們都不否認“子弟”是存在于南方的地方兵役的一種,故筆者將其歸于南方“土軍”之列。
        
        此外,晚唐的史籍也常常提及南方的鄉兵,它本是民間自發自衛鄉土的武裝力量,自然屬于“土軍”的一部分。唐末,社會極度動蕩、匪患嚴重,地方豪俠之士常常召集鄉民以“護惜鄉里”為辭,要求鄉民“自備資糧,共相保聚”,以維護地方的秩序。如果政府有所召喚,則“立可成軍”。眾所周知,唐代在后期南方兵力不敷之際,地方政府常借助于鄉兵之力以彌補地方軍力的不足,如王仙芝騷擾山南,節度使李福“團練鄉兵,屯集要路,賊不敢犯”。不過,這種鄉兵也屬臨時性的召集,若動動戡平,往往會被放散歸農。為了加強對這種地方性民兵的控制,朝廷有時以特定的使職對其進行管理,如咸通九年十二月的龐勛起義期間,朝廷派司農寺卿薛瓊,充滁、廬、壽州招鄉兵使,令其“點集鄉兵自固”。隨著王室的式微、地方治安的持續惡化,“鄉兵”逐步成為地方秩序的實際維護者。有時地方當局出于實際需要而“招撫”鄉兵,并吸納其首領進入地方機構,如唐末瀘州土豪趙師儒“率鄉兵憑高立寨,刑訟生殺,得以自專,本道署以軍職”。
        
        綜上所述,無論團練(結)、土團、子弟抑或鄉兵,它們都是從本土征發的非正規性的地方武裝,具有民兵“預備役”之類的性質,它與健兒一樣都是 構成唐代中后期南方“土軍”的重要成分,如果從更寬泛的意義上而言,團練、土團、子弟均可歸入團結(練)的范疇,因為它是“府兵、健兒之外的其他臨時征集組合軍隊的總稱”。由于健兒在南方的“土軍”中占有極低的比例,而府兵早在開元天寶年間就已經衰弱,此后湮沒不聞,因此使得南方這種非正規化“團練型”的軍人構成了南方“土軍”的主體力量,從而使南方的地方軍隊——“土軍”具有明顯的“團練化”傾向”。
        
        二、唐代中后期南方“土軍”統領官員的“文職化”
        
        唐代中期以后,南方“土軍”中存在一個十分嚴重的團練化問題,與此密切相關的還有“土軍”統領官員的文職化問題。
        
        南方“土軍”統領官員的文職化,實際上應包括藩帥的文職化與刺史的文職化兩個層面,而藩帥的文職化則是南方“土軍”統領官員文職化最核心的內容,其外在的表征有二:其一,觀察使設置的普遍化。觀察使在藩帥中占有特殊重要的地位,在討論南方“土軍”統領官員的文職化之前,有必要先探究唐代地方軍隊的統領問題。眾所周知,隨著安史之亂后藩鎮的“實體化”傾向,藩鎮的首領——藩帥(節度、觀察、經略等使)逐步攫取包括管內軍隊指揮權在內一元化的各種權力;然而在藩鎮中,藩帥專兵的差異性,在某種程度上表現為節度使與觀察使的不同。盡管,節度使與觀察使原本都是中央臨時性設置的差遣使職;最初置于邊境的節度使,由于被“賜之旌節”,故“得以專制軍事”。“掌總軍旅、顓誅殺”為節度使的職責所在,它更多地體現出軍事的色彩。而作為藩鎮首腦的觀察使,原本是朝廷在不定期派遣使節巡按地方的巡察、按察、采訪等諸使基礎上逐步發展起來的,它更多地體現出其“掌所部善惡,舉大綱”的監察職能,出任觀察使向來是清流文人的天下。隨著安史之亂后地方的軍事化,“觀察使并領都團練使”,從而具有了一定的軍事職能,成為統領當地“土軍”的統帥。即便如此,由于文人化觀察使的大量涌現,不可避免地給所在的藩鎮打上“非軍事化”的特色。
        
        為了應付安史之亂南方的局勢,遏制叛亂的進一步地蔓延,在南方各地,多數于至德(756)以后紛紛設立節度使;然而隨著叛亂的戡平與和平曙光的降臨,地方最重要的職責莫過于恢復、發展生產,在賦稅之區的南方地區尤顯得“安人是切”。在這種大環境下,唐廷十分看重官員對地方的治績,渴望能夠治世的“循吏”出現,故有“今者兵為農器,革作軒車,言于共理,在擇循吏”之說。文人化的觀察使與武人化的節度使比較而言,觀察使更適宜扮演“循吏”的角色,乃對其“授以藩符,建茲戎,仍兼廉課,俾揚風聲”。
    編輯:秋痕

    唐朝地方團練部隊:鮮為人知的南方的“土軍”(2)
    唐朝地方團練部隊:鮮為人知的南方的“土軍”(4)

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