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    唐朝地方團練部隊:鮮為人知的南方的“土軍”(2)

    發布時間: 2019/7/4 0:19:43 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 中華歷史網
    文字 〖 〗 )
    杜佑在論及唐代兵制時稱:“至德以后,州郡調弊,刺史之任,大為精選;諸州始各有兵鎮,刺史皆加團練使”。杜氏作為一代嚴謹的史學大師,德、順、憲三朝宰相、長期任職于嶺南、淮南等道節度使。在撰修《通典》恰逢大歷之時,對當時的變革頗為了解的他,只籠統地稱“至德以后……刺史皆加團練使”,并沒有特別強調這次改革中刺史軍事職掌的變化,這只能說明大歷朝罷諸州刺史兼領團練使的曇花一現,否則如此重大的制度性變化,杜佑應該是不會疏漏的。
        
        此后,州刺史仍兼任防御、團練、鎮遏等使,對于南方的江淮之地,如浙東、浙西、宣歙、江西、福建、湖南等,自唐代中期以后一直長期設置團練使、都團練使。熟稔歷代典制的胡三省,他在考察唐代兵制后明確指出:“凡有團結兵之地則置設團練使”,作為團練兵長官——都團練使、團練使在南方的普遍設置,無疑證實了團練兵在南方廣泛存在的客觀事實。
        
        當然,由于史料的殘缺不全,“窺知”南方團練兵的全貌幾乎是不可能的,但我們仍可以通過對有限已知史料的梳理,了解或推知南方團練兵的大概則是完全可能的。譬如,《通典》卷172《州郡二》載:劍南節度使管兵三萬零九百人,其中有“團結兵萬四千人”。通過這則史料我們知道:在劍南道境內三萬零九百人的軍人之中,有團結(練)兵一萬四千人,占全部兵力的45%,盡管團結(練)兵雖不及總兵力的一半,如果考慮到劍南道處于特殊的地緣位置——防守吐蕃的前線的話,戰斗力不及健兒、具有地方民兵性質的團結兵竟然占據這么高的比例,足以說明團結兵在藩鎮中的地位。又,向以“天下形勝”著稱的荊州,其兵力也不過有團練三千人,而荊州所擁有的全部兵力,最高也不會超過五千人,團練兵竟然占到全部兵力的60%以上,至少在荊州的永平軍,團練兵的主體地位無可置疑。
        
        另外,我們還看到唐代中期以后,南方頻繁征集、使用團練兵,而很少出現招募健兒以應時局的情況,是什么原因使然?雖然我們一下難以得出具體而明確的結論,但是只要分析下面的材料,也許不難推知問題之大概。如桂州刺史元結曾經上疏中央,指出:“今賊過桂州,又團練六、七十日,丁壯盡在軍中,老弱饋運糧餉,三年以來,人實疲勞”。眾所周知,團練兵本是平日在家務農,“如有警急,即令赴援”的地方民兵,本屬臨時性的征集,而桂州的“團練”三年盡在軍中,既不予以放散,也不愿以健兒代替,實際上從另一個側面表明南方團結兵在“土軍”中地位的“無可替代性”,而這在北方藩鎮中則是無法想象的。其實,只要稍稍翻檢史籍,無論是《資治通鑒》、兩《唐書》抑或其它典籍,在對唐代中后期南方軍隊的記述中,含有健兒或官健的信息不是很多,而對團練、土團、子弟、鄉兵的記載則比比皆是,這應該不是眾多史家的“疏略”,其中必然蘊含著某種客觀性的東西——南方“土軍”團練兵的主體地位。
        
        “土團”是唐代后期南方“土軍”的構成之一,它常見諸于晚唐史籍。張澤咸認為“土團”是團練兵的一種,它比團練兵更具地方色彩;而徐嫩棠依據《資治通鑒》卷225大歷十二年五月中書門下的狀,認為“團結又稱土團、鄉兵”,即“土團”兵等同于團結兵;方積六認為“土團”是唐代后期團結兵最重要的一種。筆者認為如果從寬泛的意義而言,將“土團”歸于團結兵的范疇應該可以接受,但它們之間畢竟是有區別的。《資治通鑒》卷246會昌元年十月講到“土人團結,春夏放歸,秋冬追集”時,胡注稱“團結土人為兵,故謂之團結”。胡氏的解釋頗為含糊,其意不甚明晰,那么“團結”與“土團”間究竟存在一種什么關系?先讓我們從它們的領兵體制進行考察。在玄宗的開元、天寶之際,團結兵一般由州剌史或上佐統領;而安史之亂后,隨著團練使、都團練使的大量設置,團練兵之管轄權則完全歸于兼領本州團練使的刺史、諸道兼領都團練使的藩帥,即團練兵成為由本州、本道統帥的地方(民)兵。唐末,地方政府往往根據需要臨時征集鄉民“團練”為兵,由于兵丁由本鄉土人組成,故有“土團”之謂,這表明“土團”具有與團練兵相似的一些性質。宣宗大中十三年十二月,浙東爆發了裘甫之變,詔安南經略使王式為浙東觀察使,令其率兵彈壓,王式“閱諸營見卒及土團子弟,得四千人,使導軍分路討賊;府下無守兵,更籍土團千人以補之。乃命宣歙將白琮,浙西將凌茂貞帥本軍,北來將韓宗政等帥土團,合千人,石宗本帥騎兵為前鋒自上虞趨奉化,解象山之圍”。又咸通三年八月,嶺南西道節度使蔡京為“邕州軍士所逐,奔藤州,乃詐為敕書及攻討使印,募鄉丁及旁側土軍以攻邕州”。這兩則材料中的“土團”與傳統的團練兵并沒有太大的不同,主要的差異就是“土團”的統領者不是本道的藩帥、刺史,而是本藩外的官員(包括將領)。其次,在軍隊的性質方面。鑒于團練與“土團”原則上是地方軍隊,均由政府征集,但團練更多是南方長期性兵役的執行者,而“土團”則是臨時性的征集,團練(結)與“土團”相比稍稍“正規”一些。特別在黃巢起義后,唐代社會秩序全面失控的情況下,由于南方地區國家“正規軍”的嚴重“缺位”,非正規化的團練兵同樣兵力不足(下文詳論),而所在地卻“盜賊”蜂起。在這種地方軍力近乎“真空”的條件下,導致唐末南方“土團”的惡性膨脹。在混亂中,軍隊的下級將校、地方的土豪紛紛粉墨登場,他們召集鄉民組成“土團”軍,并成功地獲得“土團”的控制權,使得“土團”逐步蛻化為地方豪強的私人軍隊。譬如:福建土豪陳巖聚眾而成所謂的“九龍軍”、武陵蠻雷滿“擇坐中豪者補置伍長”的土團軍。隨著晚唐中央控制力的消失,土團也逐步由地方政府控制下的武裝演變成地方豪強爭奪權力的工具。如原忠武裨校孫儒,一度依附于“蔡賊”秦宗權為都將,以數萬之眾的“土團白條軍”縱橫馳騁,成為晚唐爭奪地方權力的一代梟雄。又,杭州臨安人董昌,為抵御黃巢的“寇掠”,在鄉“始籍土團軍”;后將這支“土團軍”發展為“杭州八都”兵,并成功地阻止刺史路審的赴任,而時鎮海節度使周寶因“不能制”,而表為杭州刺史。
    編輯:秋痕

    唐朝地方團練部隊:鮮為人知的南方的“土軍”(1)
    唐朝地方團練部隊:鮮為人知的南方的“土軍”(3)

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