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    唐朝地方團練部隊:鮮為人知的南方的“土軍”(1)

    發布時間: 2019/7/4 0:19:51 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 中華歷史網
    文字 〖 〗 )
    “土軍”是有關唐代中期以后史籍中頻繁出現的一個詞匯,由于典籍的語焉不詳,加上學者對此一直缺乏必要的關注,故學界對于所謂的“土軍”問題不甚了了。“土軍”,從表面字義來說,即本土之軍,它往往指來自于本州、本道的武裝力量;與此相對應的概念則是外來的、非本土化的軍事力量——“客軍”。
        
        史籍對土軍的解釋,《資治通鑒》卷253廣明元年(880)三月,黃巢義軍準備渡淮北上直指河洛,時淮南節度使高駢“乃傳檄征天下兵,且廣招募,得土客之兵共七萬,威望大振,朝廷深倚之”。胡注曰:“土兵謂淮南(本道)之兵也”。又,同書卷254中和元年(881)七月,黃巢揮師入關,僖宗被迫“西幸”。到達成都以后,因厚賞從駕諸軍而不及蜀軍,引起蜀軍的不滿,為了對他們進行安撫,權閹“(田)令孜宴土客都頭”,胡復注云:“土軍,蜀軍”。由此可見,史籍中土軍并不是嚴格政治學意義上的術語,它是以軍人所屬的地域分野來界定的不甚嚴格的概念。
        
        一、唐代中后期南方土軍的“團練化”
        
        唐代中期以后,南方“土軍”的構成頗為復雜,既包括地方招募的健兒,也含有“緩則為農,急則為兵”的團結兵以及稍后出現的“土團”,還有特定時期人數眾多的子弟、鄉兵之屬。
        
        唐代中期以后,隨著以義務征點為特征的府兵、兵募制度淡出歷史舞臺,取而代之的是國家雇傭兵役制——健兒制度,在此大背景下,健兒理應是南方“土軍”的一分子,但事實情況是否如此呢?請看下列史料:
        
        上元元年(760),道州刺史元結上書荊南節度使來(王真),請求發給隨軍家口衣糧,在衣糧狀中稱:“當軍將士二千人,父隨子者四人,母隨子者二十八人,……以前件,將士父母等皆因喪亂,不知所歸,在于軍中,為日亦久……今軍中有父母者皆共分衣食”。
        
        大歷三年(768),淮南道和州刺史、行營防御使張萬福率兵誅平盧叛將康自勸,節度使韋元甫欲重賞將士,為張萬福所阻,他說“官健常虛費衣糧,無所事,今方立小功,不足過賞,請用三分之一”。
        
        太和三年(829)冬,南詔侵擾劍南,山南西道節度使李絳“詔征赴授,絳于本道募兵千人赴蜀”。
        
        大中朝,桂管觀察使杜亞派兵赴安南防戍,軍隊所需“用夫船程糧及船米賞設,并每日醬菜等,一年約用錢六千二百六十余貫,米面等七千四百三十余石”。
        
        成通十一年(871),南詔侵擾西川,進逼成都,時西川節度使盧耽深感兵力不敷,“乃募軍中子弟,得選兵三千人”。
        
        根據以上材料,我們可以得知從安史之亂初起的上元元年到咸通二年間,至少在唐代南方的荊南、淮南、山南、桂管等“土軍”中普遍包含雇傭職業兵——健兒(亦稱官健),因為它們的身份完全符合大歷十二年五月十日,中書門下的“狀”中關于健兒由官府“招募”且(官)“給春冬衣,并家口糧”的規定。但需要指出的是,這時南方“土軍”中健兒的人數并不多,此處不作過多說明,待下文詳論。
        
        團練兵(即團結兵)作為南方“土軍”組成部分之一,在安史之亂前,關內的京兆、同州、華州、蒲州以及京西的秦、成、岷、渭、河、蘭諸州等中國北方地區大量存在,然而在秦淮一線的南方地區,其設置僅限于劍南道近于吐蕃的黎、雅、邛、翼、茂五州的范圍。至于南方的其他地區,目前尚沒有相關的史料證實團練兵的存在,因此,基本上可以認定在安史之亂前,團練兵在南方的大部份地區并沒有出現。然而,安史之亂發生以后,國家為阻止叛軍的南下騷擾與劫掠,在“諸郡當賊沖者,皆置防御守捉使。乾元元年,置團練守捉使、都團練守捉使”(按:團練使為團練守捉使的簡稱,都團練使亦然),由團練使、都團練使征召本土的鄉勇“團練”御敵,事實上,這些鄉勇就是團練兵。
        
        基于團練兵與團練使、都團練使關系密切,考察南方的團練兵,有必要搞清楚大歷十二年(778)兵制改革后南方諸道的團練使、都諸州團練使的存廢問題。對于都團練使的存廢,諸史的記載沒有太大的分歧,《資治通鑒》明確指出“詔自都團練使外,悉罷諸州團練守捉使”。盡管,朝廷已廢置了諸州的團練使,而諸道的都團練使卻得以維持。至于團練使的問題,諸史記載頗有歧義,《新唐書》卷49下《百官四下》認為寶應元年元載秉政,由于“思結人心”,而使諸州“刺史得兼團練守捉使”。隨著中樞權力的更迭——元載的被殺與楊綰的入相,于是有“罷州團練守捉使之名”,至于是否取消包括南方在內諸州刺史領有團練使的問題則根本沒有提及。而大歷十二年,中書門下的奏狀也稱:“諸州團練守捉使,請一切并停”;又,前引《資治通鑒》卷225大歷十二年五月,“悉罷諸州團練守捉使”。根據上述史料,我們似乎完全有理由相信團練使確已廢罷的“事實”。其實,問題的另一方面,這次改革既不徹底、也缺乏必要的持續性,《新唐書》一方面提到“罷團練守捉使”之事,同時又強調南方某些地區的例外,如“唯澧、朗、峽、興、鳳(州)如故”。
    編輯:秋痕

    中國古代騎兵:冷兵器時代,得騎兵者得天下(4)
    唐朝地方團練部隊:鮮為人知的南方的“土軍”(2)

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