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    最早的火藥武器出現在唐朝末年[圖]

    發布時間: 2019/7/4 0:18:52 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 中華網
    文字 〖 〗 )
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    我國和世界上最早的火藥武器,出現在唐朝末年和北宋時期。 
      
      火藥發明以后,很快被用于軍事斗爭之中。從目前的史料來看,最早使用火藥武器是唐天祐元年(公元904年)。當時,地方割據勢力在互相攻伐中,曾使用“飛火”攻城。“飛火”就是在箭桿上綁一個火藥團,點燃引信后射出去。
      
       


      
      宋代,民族矛盾、階級矛盾十分尖銳,戰爭接連不斷,促使了火藥武器的發展。成書于公元l044年、北宋官修御定的《武經總要》中,記載了最早的一批火藥武器。這批火藥武器可分為火球類火器和火箭類火器。 
      
      火球類火器有引火球、蒺藜火球、毒藥煙球等八種。它們的制作方法,是把火藥同鐵片一類殺傷物或致毒藥物,用多層紙裹上封好。作戰時,點燃引信后將它們拋射到敵軍陣地。其中,引火球(也叫“火炮”)就是大火藥包,用以燒夷敵軍人馬。蒺藜火球和毒藥煙球也是火藥包:蒺藜火球里面裝有帶刺的鐵蒺藜,爆破后鐵蒺藜飛散開來,遍落在道路上,阻止敵人兵馬前進;毒藥煙球內裝砒霜、巴豆之類毒物,燃燒后成煙四散,使敵方中毒。火箭類火器則是在箭頭上附著炸藥包,點燃引信,用弓弩發射出去,燒夷較遠距離的目的物。
      


      
      上面談的這批火藥武器,主要是利用火藥的燃燒性能。隨著火藥配方的不斷改進,火藥的爆炸力不斷增強。到了元朝,火藥的應用已經主要側重在爆炸力方面了。 
      
      火藥武器的出現,使作戰武器發生了一個飛躍性的進步。在將火藥應用于軍事斗爭的實踐活動中,我國走在世界的最前列。僅以《武經總要》所明確記載的這批火藥武器來說,就比歐洲出現火藥武器早了約3個世紀。
    編輯:秋痕

    中國刀之神韻——唐朝刀原貌[圖]
    唐初的精銳騎兵:玄甲軍

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