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  • 當前類別:首頁 >> 新版國學 >> 軍事 >> 隋唐演義 >> 軍馬兵械
    中國刀之神韻——唐朝刀原貌[圖]

    發布時間: 2019/7/4 0:18:54 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 轉自:武器軍事論壇
    文字 〖 〗 )
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    橫刀,最初傳到日本的唐刀,其刀形是直形的刀,發展到后來逐漸被日本人變為了帶著弧度的彎曲著的刀形,而現在的日本刀其刀形在刀身上是帶著弧度的彎曲著的刀形。

      橫刀,也就是現在所稱的“唐大刀”。橫刀,為雙手刀,是在漢朝的“環首刀”的基礎上加以改進而研制的,去掉了在漢朝常見的刀柄尾部的環,并延長了短柄改為可以雙手使用的長柄,使其變為可以雙手使用的窄刃厚脊的長直刀,基本形狀和現在的“日本刀”很象,但唐朝橫刀的刀身及刀鋒基本上都是直的,不象現在的常見的“日本刀”是帶著弧度的彎曲著的,唐朝橫刀的形狀為直刀形狀。可以說現在的“日本刀”的形狀總體上就是完全抄襲中國的唐朝的“橫刀”樣式,雖然這對于喜歡標榜“日本刀”攻擊力的日本人來說是種難堪,但是這的確就是真實的歷史。橫刀的鍛造技術在當時世界上是極為先進的,鍛造出來的刀鋒銳無比,而且步騎兩用,制造橫刀的技術后來被日本學去,成就了日本刀后世的聲名。

      日本正倉院保藏的唐刀見下圖1~圖3:
       

      圖1 日本正倉院保藏的唐刀圖

      這把刀是唐朝八世紀中國制的寶刀,當時運到日本。現藏日本皇宮擁有的正倉院。
       


      圖2 唐刀局部放大圖

       

      圖3 唐刀局部放大圖


       

      圖4 第一把刀裝圖:第一把刀裝的白刃在此…… 


      日本正倉院保藏的唐刀見下圖5~圖6:
       



      圖5 日本正倉院保藏的唐刀圖

      這把刀是唐朝八世紀中國制的寶刀,當時運到日本。現藏日本皇宮擁有的正倉院。
       



      圖6 唐刀局部放大圖


       

      圖7 第二把刀裝圖:第二把刀裝的白刃在此。

      這把刀是唐造,直刃文……其實日本刀的制法,如夾鋼和包鋼,切刃造和高造,用燒土來淬刃和造刃文,反復鍛打……都是中國發明而流傳到日本的……以上的實品就可以證明。

       

      圖8 儀刀圖:唐朝8世紀圖:朝廷儀衛手拿著長柄的環首刀,可雙手握。這些刀當時名作“儀刀”。 


      見下圖9~圖10:這兩把刀現存于日本,日本學者認為是7或8世紀中國制的寶刀。第一把名為七星劍(實際是刀),刀面上有云文,也據說有七星文。第二把名為水龍劍(實際是刀)。此兩刀為切刃造,用燒土淬制的直刃文。唐朝的刃文古名為霜雪,漢朝時名為白堅,三國名為白虹。

       

      圖9 七星劍(實際是刀)

       

      圖10 水龍劍(實際是刀)


      見下圖11~圖12:這兩把刀藏在日本正倉院。有當時的唐朝平安時代史書記載公認是唐大刀。請看《正倉院の刀劍》,出版社——日本經濟新聞社,1974年。第一把唐刀為切刃造,第二把為鎬造,雙把為燒土淬制直刃文。現代日本學界內,都沒否認此刀的來源。

     


        圖11第一把唐刀為切刃造 

       

      圖12第二把為鎬造


      見下圖13~圖14:出土的唐刀,雖然生銹,但可見鎬造刀形,長一米半,起脊。最厚達一點八公分。鎬造。1995年購于倫敦,內部未腐蝕。
       


      圖13

       

      圖14


      見下圖15經日本改造后仿制的唐樣大刀圖:(現藏于東京國立美術館國寶)12世紀藤原真楯家傳,年代不詳,作禮儀用。
       



      圖15 點擊上圖放大


      見下圖16陌刀圖:唐軍步兵均使用陌刀,因陌刀威力極大,列陣而出則“如墻而進”,肉搏時候威力不減,史載李嗣業用陌刀肉搏“當嗣業刀者,人馬俱碎”。
     

      

      圖16陌刀圖


      見下圖唐代武士圖17~圖18:圖為唐代穿明光甲及戎服的武士復原圖。
       


      圖17唐代穿明光甲武士復原圖

       

      圖18唐代穿戎服的武士復原圖

      唐的鎧甲和戎服的基本保持著南北朝以來至隋代的樣式和形制。貞觀以后,進行了一系列服飾制度的改革,漸漸形成了具有唐代風格的軍戎服飾。高宗、則天兩朝,國力鼎盛,天下承平,上層集團奢侈之風日趨嚴重,戎服和鎧甲的大部分脫離了使用的功能,演變成為美觀豪華,以裝飾為主的禮儀服飾。“安史之亂”后,重有恢復到金戈鐵馬時代的那種利于作戰的實用狀態,特別是鎧甲,晚唐時已形成基本固定的形制,唐代的鎧甲,據《唐六典》記載,有明光、光要、細鱗、山文、鳥錘、白布、皂娟、布背、步兵、皮甲、木甲、鎖子、馬甲等十三種。其中明光、光要、鎖子、山文、鳥錘、細鱗甲是鐵甲,后三種是以鎧甲甲片的式樣來命名的。皮甲、木甲、白布、皂娟、布背,則是以制造材料命名。在鎧甲中,仍以明光甲使用最普遍。

    編輯:秋痕

    唐朝武器、馬政和軍需供給制度
    最早的火藥武器出現在唐朝末年[圖]

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