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  • 中國刀之神韻——唐朝刀原貌[圖]
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    冷兵器歷史上對后世影響巨大的武器——唐刀

    發布時間: 2019/7/4 0:19:02 被閱覽數: 次 來源: “aa
    文字 〖 〗 )
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    唐刀有四制,為中國唐朝時期軍隊所裝備刀制的合稱。


       

    《唐六典》卷一六武庫令丞職掌條記載:刀之制有四,一曰儀刀,二曰障刀,三曰橫刀,四曰陌刀。
      
    儀刀: 蓋古班劍之類,晉宋已來謂之御刀,后魏曰長刀,皆施龍鳳環。至隋,謂之儀刀,裝以金銀,羽儀所執。
    障刀: 蓋用障身以御敵。

    橫刀: 兵士所佩之刀, 名亦起于隋 。《 唐律疏議》卷八衛禁律“諸宿衛者兵仗不得遠身”〔疏〕議曰:兵仗者,謂橫刀常帶;其甲、矟、弓、箭之類,有時應執著者并不得遠身。宿衛時,“橫刀常帶”,故而高宗對為千牛衛將軍的王及善說:“他人非搜辟不得至朕所,卿佩大橫刀在朕側。”可見橫刀為宿衛官兵的主要兵仗。府兵戰士自備橫刀,宿衛時常佩橫刀,唐橫刀是兵土普遍所佩之刀。
    陌刀: 長刀也,步兵所持,蓋古之斷馬劍。
    由此可見后世統稱的唐刀有四種,儀刀、障刀、橫刀都是短兵,按照使用的不同劃為禮儀和戰斗刀兩種,陌刀與儀刀、橫刀、障刀(即一般的護身刀)均不同:首先,它不屬于宿衛兵仗,上引《唐律疏議》卷八宿衛者所持兵仗有橫刀、甲、矟、弓、箭之類,但沒有陌刀。其次,陌刀是重兵器。《唐會要》卷七二軍雜錄門略云:其年(開成元年)三月,皇城留守奏:城內諸司衛所管羽儀法物數內,有陌刀利器等……其諸司衛所有陌刀利器等,伏請納在軍器使,如本司要立仗行事,請給儀刀。可見陌刀不是羽儀法物,而是利器。

    橫刀的形狀為直刀形狀且短柄。可以說現在的“日本刀”的形狀總體上就是完全抄襲中國的唐朝的“橫刀”樣式,

    雖然這對于喜歡標榜“日本刀”攻擊力的日本人來說是種難堪,但是這的確就是真實的歷史。橫刀的鍛造技術在當時世界上是極為先進的,鍛造出來的刀鋒銳無比,而且步騎兩用,制造橫刀的技術后來被日本學去,成就了日本刀后世的聲名中國唐刀,德國的開山刀,都可以說是刀中極品,只是正宗的少見,特別是唐刀,天下少找賣家,只能托經驗豐富的老鐵匠來特別打造.日本的倭刀與唐刀外形極象,怎么形成的不用再說,日本有幾樣東西是靠自己創造出來的?

    唐朝時發展出新的刀型,刀首無環,柄部以木夾裹鐵莖,外纏絲繩,刀首包裹金屬飾件,刀柄與鞘均鑲金刊嵌玉、裹以鮫革,裝飾華麗非常,日本稱之為「唐樣大刀」,至今正倉院中仍有同一型式的傳世品可供參考,日本人在精心模仿之後,以此為基礎而發展出後來的武士刀。

    除了短柄長刀之外,唐代還有一種長柄的刀,長一丈(約三米),稱為「陌刀」,威力極強,步兵持之以橫向密集隊形列於陣前,「如墻而進」,但唐以後就未見使用的記載了。

    兩把刀都是唐朝八世紀中國制的寶刀,當時運到日本,現藏日本皇宮擁有的正倉院。

    第二把刀裝的白刃,刀是高造、直刃文;日本刀的制法如夾鋼和包鋼、

    現存于日本正倉院的唐刀實物——七星唐刀/水龍唐刀

    編輯:秋痕


    陌刀與大唐帝國的軍事

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