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    “京”“師”“都”義考 北京何以稱“北京”

    發布時間: 2019/7/22 0:24:59 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 北京日報
    文字 〖 〗 )
    北京何以稱“北京”
      ——“京”“師”“都”義考
      李亞彬
      首都為一個國家最高政權機關所在地,是全國的政治中心。北京作為中華人民共和國的首都,為什么以“京”稱之呢?
      中國歷史上,許多政權的都城都稱“京”。以“京”稱都城始于周朝建立之初。周武王滅商后,定鎬為王都(王室居住地及西周王朝中央政府所在地)。是時,以“京”稱鎬,鎬亦稱“京”。《詩·大雅·下武》第一章說:“三后在天,王配于京。”《鄭箋》言:“此三后既登遐,精氣在天矣,武王又能配行其道于京,謂鎬京也。”朱熹注曰:“京,鎬京也。”由此看來,周人以其先祖公劉的居住地“京”作為對王都的一般稱呼。按照東漢哲學家王充的說法,這應該是出于“本所興昌之地,重本不忘始”的初衷,昭彰公劉的功業。
      “京”與“師”常并稱“京師”。《公劉》第三章說:“京師之野,于時處處。”朱熹注曰:“京師,高丘而居眾也。董氏曰:‘所謂京師者蓋起于此,后世因以所都為京師也。’”楊伯峻說:“京復稱京師者,周人于地名之下往往加師為稱,亦猶《召誥》稱洛,《洛誥》稱洛師。”清代學者馬瑞辰《毛詩傳箋通釋》說:“吳斗南曰:‘京者,地名;師者,都邑之稱,如洛邑亦稱洛師之類。’其言是也。”據此,“京師”意為“眾人聚居的高丘”,相當于“京邑”。
      春秋以降,京師也稱“周京”“京周”。《詩·曹風·下泉》第一章說:“愾我寤嘆,念彼周京。”朱熹注曰:“周京,天子所居也。”《下泉》第二章說:“愾我寤嘆,念彼京周。”朱熹注曰:“京周,猶周京也。”《下泉》第三章說:“愾我寤嘆,念彼京師。”朱熹注曰:“京師,猶京周也。”《下泉》為春秋時期作品,作此詩時,平王當居成周,故以洛邑為“京師”。
      唐代經學家孔穎達《毛詩正義》說:“周京與京師一也,因異章而變文耳。周京者,周室所居之京師也。”現代文獻學家屈萬里《詩經詮釋》則曰:“京周,即周京,倒文以協韻耳。”
      西周時期,京、京師,指的都是鎬。到東周,京周、周京,則指洛邑。也就是說,周王在哪里居住、辦公,哪里就稱“京”。
      后世也有人認為,鎬京亦以“都”言。“都”原為有先君宗廟的城邑。《說文·邑部》說:“有先君之舊宗廟曰都。從邑者聲。”《詩·小雅·都人士》第一章說:“彼都人氏,狐裘黃黃。”《鄭箋》說:“城郭之域曰都。”朱熹注曰:“都,王都也。”屈萬里《詩經詮釋》說:“都人士,猶今言城里人也。惟此都字,疑指鎬京言。”
      總之,在周代,京、京師、周京、京周、都,均指稱“王室居住地及中央政府所在地”。后來,“京”“師”“都”這方面的含義一直延續下來。
      今之北京,西周時期稱薊。公元前1046年,武王滅商后,封堯帝之后于薊,北京建城歷史由此開始。春秋戰國時期亦稱薊,秦代為薊縣,是廣陽郡郡守駐地,西漢為廣陽國首府,東漢復為廣陽郡郡守駐地,三國、兩晉、南北朝時期稱幽州,隋時為涿郡,唐代復稱幽州。
      遼時,北京稱南京(燕京)。938年,契丹獲幽云十六州后,升幽州為南京,又稱燕京,為遼的陪都(當時的遼都在上京)。這是北京稱“京”的開始。金時,北京稱中都。1153年,金海陵王遷都燕京,定名中都。這是北京建都之始。元代,北京稱大都。1263年,元世祖忽必烈定都上都(今內蒙古自治區正藍旗東);1272年,遷都燕京,稱大都。
      明代,北京先后稱北平、北京。1368年,明軍攻占大都,為記載平定北方的功績,改大都為北平府;明成祖朱棣即位后,將他做燕王的封地北平府改為順天府,改北平為北京,并遷都于此。這是“北京”這一稱謂的開始。
      清代,北京稱京師。1644年,清軍攻入北京,定都于此,稱京師。
      辛亥革命后,北京由京師改為北京。孫中山于1912年1月1日在南京就任中華民國臨時大總統,4月1日辭職,袁世凱繼任,于5日將臨時政府遷往北京。從此至1927年4月南京國民政府成立,為中華民國北京政府時期,以北京為首都。從南京國民政府成立到1949年中華人民共和國成立前夕,為中華民國南京政府時期,北京改為北平。其間,1937年“七七”事變后,日軍占領北平,成立傀儡政權“中華民國臨時政府”,將北平改為北京。1945年8月21日,第十一戰區孫連仲部收復北京,更名北平。
      1949年1月31日,中國人民解放軍取得北平控制權,9月27日中國人民政治協商會議第一屆全體會議通過《關于中華人民共和國國都、紀年、國歌、國旗的決議》,將北平更名為北京,定為首都。
      縱觀北京3000多年建城史,凡稱“京”以及“都”“師”時,皆為都城或陪都。
      以地理方位言之,歷史上常有東京、西京、南京、北京之稱,分別為東部、西部、南部、北部的都城之意。如,宋初,因后周舊都開封號東京,以洛陽為陪都,號西京,1014年后以應天府(今河南商丘南)為南京,1042年以大名府為北京,這就是北宋“四京”。幽州遼時升為南京,以其位于上京之南。是時,上京和南京之間還有中京,亦以方位名之。
      今之南京有“六朝古都”“十朝都會”之稱,其現名始于明初,明成祖朱棣遷都北京,將應天府改為南京,二京一北一南;清代,南京稱江寧;其間,太平天國定都于此,改為天京;辛亥革命后改為南京,為孫中山任臨時大總統期間中華民國的首都;南京國民政府亦以南京為首都,其間,1939年遷往陪都重慶,1946年還都南京。
      中國如此,漢字文化圈中的日本、朝鮮也有相同的情況。如日本的京都,桓武天皇794年遷都于此,稱“平安京”。1868年,江戶幕府倒臺,天皇由京都遷往東北部的江戶,改名東京,至今一直為日本首都。朝鮮首都平壤歷史上曾稱“西京”,918年,高麗朝建立,定都松岳(今朝鮮開城),稱開京;926年以西北的平壤為“西京”,與開京相對應。
      綜上所述,無論歷史上還是現在,無論中國還是日本、朝鮮,名稱中帶有“京”以及“都”“師”的城市,往往與都城有關,或作過都城,或作過陪都。
      (作者為光明日報總編室副主任、高級編輯)
    編輯:秋痕

    "傖"字被人誤解了(2)

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