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    淺談中國古典詩歌的語言特征(1)

    發布時間: 2019/7/3 0:08:51 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 論文聯盟
    文字 〖 〗 )
    論文關鍵詞:中國古典詩歌  語言 特征

      論文摘要:中國是一個詩歌的國度,所以特別重視發揮語言的詩性,尤其是中國古典詩歌。劉勰《文心雕龍》云:“情在詞外曰‘隱’,狀溢目前曰‘秀’”這兩句話可以說最簡明扼要地概況了中國古典詩歌的語言特征:簡約性、象征性、 音樂 性、畫意性。
       
      中國傳統詩論和傳統 哲學 愛講“言不盡意”,“言有盡而意無窮”,這并不是說中國傳統思想否認或懷疑語言的表達能力。其實,“言不盡意”、“言有盡而意無窮”恰恰是重視詩的語言之不同于一般非詩的語言之區別的表現,恰恰說明了詩的語言乃是以說出的東西,即“有盡之言”暗示出未說出的“無窮之意”。如果語言根本不能表意,那還有什么詩的 藝術 可言呢?中國古典詩的水平之高下,主要不在于說出的東西,而在于說出的言詞對未說出的東西所啟發、所想象的空間之廣度和深度。中國古典詩的語言所具有的上述基本特征,茲作如下論述。 
       
      一、言約旨遠 
       
      詩的語言不能像平常說話或科學的 邏輯 論證那樣鋪陳展開,它要求用盡量少的語言表達盡量多的內涵,所謂“言約旨遠”(《世說新語》),“語少意足,有無窮之味”(洪邁《容齋隨筆》),“語少而意廣”(陳師道《后山詩話》)等等,說的都是這個意思。魏慶之所編《詩人玉屑》引述了《漫齋語錄》中這樣一段話:“詩文要含蓄不露,便是好處……用意十分,下語三分,可幾風雅;下語六分,可追李杜;下語十分,晚唐之作也。用意要精深,下語要平易,此詩人之難也。”我們當然不必拘泥于這些比喻性的具體數字,也不必認為從四言詩到五言詩到七言詩是一個距離“言約旨遠”的水平愈來愈低下的過程。這段話無非指明了詩歌語言的一個特點:為了要含蓄不露,暗示較大的未說出的東西的空間,說出來的言詞一定要量少而含金量大,否則,就成為無詩意的散文了。唐庚的《唐子西文錄》稱贊杜詩之含蓄深遠說:“過岳陽樓,觀杜子美詩,不過四十字爾,氣象宏放,含蓄深遠,殆與洞庭爭雄,所謂富哉言乎者……杜詩雖小而大……”“小”者,詞量少之謂也;“大”者,含意深遠之謂也。王力先生曾以杜甫《春日憶李白》中的兩聯為例具體說明了詩歌語言的這一特征:“詩詞是最精練的語言,要在短短的幾十個字中,表現出尺幅千里的畫面,所以有許多句子的結構就非壓縮不可。”例如杜甫的《春日憶李白》中的兩聯:清新庾開府,俊逸鮑參軍。渭北春天樹,江東日暮云。若依散文的語法看,這四句話是不完整的,但是詩人的意思已經完全表達出來了。李白的詩清新得像庾信的詩一樣,俊逸得像鮑照的詩一樣。當時杜甫在渭北(長安),李白在江東,杜甫看見了暮云春樹,觸景生情,就引起了甜蜜的友誼的回憶來。這個意思不是很清楚了嗎?假如增加一些字,反而令人感到是多余的了。 
      但僅僅詞量少并不足以暗示未說出的空間之深遠,“言約”一條并不足以保證“旨遠”。這說出的少量語言還必須具有更積極的特點,才能達到“旨遠”的目標。 
       
      二、象征性和暗喻性語言 
       
      它以表示具體事物或具體實景的語言暗示(象征)深遠的意境。法國當代著名哲學家利科認為,“語言的神奇性正是在于:語言是利用象征的特性玩弄‘指明一隱藏’的雙重方向的運動的魔術——語言在‘指明’時就包含了一種新的‘隱藏’,而在‘隱藏’時又包含了再次指明的可能性”利科這段話是就一般語言的特性而說的,至于詩的語言,我想當然更具這種象征性特色。中國古典詩中有以單個的語詞為象征的,例如以松柏象征堅貞;也有以全詩為象征的,例如張九齡的《感遇》:“江南有丹橘,經冬猶綠林;豈伊地氣暖,自有歲寒心。可以薦佳客,奈何阻重深。運命唯所遇,循環不可尋。徒言樹桃李,此木豈無陰。”這就是以丹橘及其經冬不凋的具體形象,象征詩人高潔的品格,從而使讀者理解詩人的內心生活。中國人無論古人還是今人,都有共同的傳統背景,生活于一個古今一體的“共同體”中,所以即使是今人也能理解丹橘的品質,從而使古人張九齡的個體性的東西得到今人的理解和同情。
    編輯:秋痕

    網絡語言新詞迭出 更得咬文嚼字
    淺談中國古典詩歌的語言特征(2)

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