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  • 當前類別:首頁 >> 新版國學 >> 漢語 >> 漢語 >> 漢語方言
    方言“諧音梗”有趣,但缺乏深度的詞終將消失

    發布時間: 2019/7/3 0:09:44 被閱覽數: 次 來源: 新京報
    文字 〖 〗 )
    三年前,“藍瘦香菇”這個“難受想哭”的諧音傳遍互聯網。三年后,那個被網民嘲笑的人或許已經被忘卻,那個梗或許早已塵封在歷史流行詞的檔案里,但諧音梗卻并沒消失。最近幾個月,少兒劇《巴啦啦小魔仙》里游樂王子的一口古怪的“塑料普通話”被人們挖掘出來,其中他的臺詞“要你管”和“與你無關”讀音變成了“要你寡”和“雨女無瓜”,這些詞如病毒一般傳遍了各個社交媒體和視頻網站的留言和彈幕中,為什么方言梗或者讀音梗容易在網絡上流行呢?
      方言的發音變成流行文化的梗并不是網絡時代的產物,當年馬三立老師的經典相聲中“豆泥灣兒(逗你玩兒)”這個帶著方言發音的詞匯印刻在無數人的腦海中。方言發音之所以容易成為笑料,一來是方言與標準語之間詞匯、發音甚至是語法的本身差異。對于標準語使用者,方言的陌生感就容易產生疏離感。疏離帶來排斥,排斥帶來嘲諷,嘲諷帶來高效。英國劇作家蕭伯納的《皮格馬利翁》及其改編的音樂劇《窈窕淑女》就揭露了英格蘭錯綜復雜的方言鄙視鏈,以及受教育人群對倫敦土音考克尼方言的嘲諷。
      二來方言作為語言的變體,除了體現使用者的地理背景之外,也體現了社會經濟背景,甚至能反映出一個人的教育背景和平時活動的圈子背景。網絡上的各個平臺的小圈子里充斥著各種“黑話”。圈外人看到這些“黑話”自然是一頭霧水,而圈內人則可以利用這些黑話快速識別同好(有著共同興趣愛好的人群)。
      三來,語言的強勢與使用者的話語權息息相關。俄國猶太社會語言學家馬克斯·維恩里希說過,“語言是有著陸軍和海軍的方言”。世界上所有的標準語言也不是憑空創造出來的,也是以方言作為基礎。普通話以北方官話為根基,英國的英式英語標準發音源自王室和牛津劍橋的受教育人群的說話方式。而在網絡時代,視頻、表情包、論壇成為了最搞笑的傳播途徑。
      但最終,任何類型的梗/彌母/迷因/文化基因,如其概念創始人生物學家理查德·道金斯筆下所描述,都有其生命。文化基因需要傳播,“傳播者”的壽命會影響著文化基因的壽命。
      一個梗本身的信息越短,越容易理解,在短時間內就能傳播到更廣的圈子里。但如同基因,也會快速變異,甚至被同化、消失。一個梗本身的信息越復雜,越難理解,傳播速度就會越慢,但變異速度不會很快,也不容易被同化。流行語其興也勃焉,其亡也忽焉,而小圈子的“黑話”或許掀不起驚濤駭浪,但往往能在少數人中慢慢傳播下去。
      那流行的方言梗如何長存?首先需要超脫意義本身,變成越抽象的東西越好。這樣才能引起更多聯想。“藍瘦香菇”簡化成了一個核心意象,讓人一想起來就是一朵藍色瘦削的香菇。而且從信息量上來看,是一個核心名詞詞素帶著兩個修飾的形容詞。而“雨女無瓜”構成了一幅雨天里女子沒有瓜的場景,但包含意象太多,而且有主有謂有賓,過于復雜,恐怕不如前者那么好記。另外方言諧音如果直接能套用現有標準語詞的話,給人留下的印象會更深。北京話的“裝墊兒臺(中央電視臺)”讓北京人看見能會心一笑,但其他地區的人想要記住得頗費腦子。相比之下,天津話的“結界”(姐姐),讓人一下子把這個日常稱呼和一個二次元日語文化衍生詞匯聯系在一起,就好記多了。
      語言一直在不斷更迭。這個時代的科技無疑是語言變化的助推器。我們見證了比以往更快的詞匯甚至是概念的誕生,也會看著其中絕大部分只是為一時笑料而創作,缺乏深度的詞匯消失在語言長河之中。
      □王知易(語言科普作家)
    編輯:秋痕

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