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    當前類別:首頁 >> 國學新聞 >> 奇聞軼事
    太平花為什么被皇家格外重視?

    發布時間: 2019/6/23 0:42:14    被閱覽數:

    御花園的太平花

      ▌李其功/文 齊夢伯/攝
      1935年,原北平市政府秘書處編輯出版了《舊都文物略》,這是一本官方的關于舊京文物的權威讀本,但該書以介紹建筑文物為主,鮮有介紹園林花木。頗為難得的是,在講到紫禁城御花園絳雪軒的時候,說了一句“軒前有太平花”。
      之所以提到太平花,想來是因為太平花的珍稀少見。
      故宮里的這叢太平花,今天看來,花叢并不大,在不開花的時候,十分的不起眼。《舊都文物略》上還有一幅當年太平花的照片,從照片看,民國時候的那叢要比現存的這叢茂盛,這不外乎兩種可能,一種可能是前者死了,后來又補種,一種可能是太平花在生長過程中出現死枝,導致枝條減少了。
      除了御花園,我在京城別處也曾見過太平花。
      20年前的一個春日,我去老舍紀念館,見到兩叢灌木,就問院里一個老太太,這是什么花,老太太說是太平花,開白花,可香了。我說太遺憾了,沒趕上花期。老太太說,等五月就開了,到時候你就說是來看太平花的,就不用買門票了。
      事后想起來,那個“有權”的老太太也許就是老舍紀念館館長、老舍先生的女兒舒濟。
      從老舍的子女回憶老舍在上世紀五十年代購買“丹柿小院”時,院子里也是沒有太平花的,是愛花如命的老舍先生從別的地方移來。至于是從哪里移來的,也是個謎。
      小德張偷出來的太平花
      太平花在今天可能不算什么,但是在清代乃至民國,可真是稀罕物。
      民國時期有位民俗學者傅蕓子,他曾在1931年6月6日的《北京畫報》上發表了一篇短文《舊都之太平花》。這篇文章短到只有200多字。但是把太平花的流傳脈絡進行了簡要梳理。
      傅蕓子認為最初太平花僅僅宮里頭才有,之所以流入民間,那是大太監小德張所為,小德張先是移了一棵給志贊希,這個志贊希是何許人呢?他是瑾妃的弟弟、珍妃的哥哥,瑾妃后來成了瑾貴太妃,身份顯耀了起來。小德張“拿”宮中奇花送人,當然是為了拍馬屁。同時小德張也沒忘了自己撈好處,他給自己位于永康胡同的園子也移了一棵太平花。
      小德張的園子后來歸了搞復辟的那個張勛,張勛之后,主人又換了上海灘的大冒險家哈同,乒乓球世界冠軍莊則棟的父親因為娶了哈同的一個養女,所以哈同便把自己在北京買的大宅子委托莊則棟的父親代為管理,太平花于是又成了莊家的愛物。
      傅蕓子說“太平花北平三處有之”,即指以上三處。按傅的說法,皇城以外的太平花都是小德張從宮里偷出來的。
      宮里的太平花如何而來?
      宮里的太平花如何而來,說法不一。
      學者傅振倫先生在《七十年所見所聞》一書中說“相傳清乾隆時,有人以此花進貢(或云貢自四川),恰巧鎮壓大小金川得勝,高宗因賜名太平花,種在御花園里,并建絳雪軒于其東。每年春季開花,色白如雪,香味濃郁,清帝與群臣游園賦詩,歌頌升平。慈禧太后也極欣賞此花,保護備至。昔日每太平花開放時,故宮博物院往往舉行游園會”。
      這段文字認為太平花是乾隆朝之貢品,而且乾隆因花建絳雪軒,并賜名太平花,可見規格之高。
      故宮博物院是1925年10月10日成立的,傅振倫民國時期曾在故宮博物院任職,他說在太平花開放之時,故宮博物院還要舉行游園會,由此可見,御花園那一叢太平花在沒有了皇帝之后,依然沿襲了清代的游園賞花傳統,可見民國政府對太平花同樣給予了足夠的重視。
      在 《十朝詩乘》中也認為太平花來自四川——“御苑絳雪軒前,有太平花一樹,每初夏著花。相傳出西蜀青城山中,初名豐瑞,宋天圣中獻汴都,賜名‘太平瑞圣花’,曾見范石湖題詠。”
      這段史料把太平花宮廷種植史歷史往前推到了宋朝以前,不僅是獻于宮廷,還被宋仁宗賜名“太平瑞圣花”。
      太平花之來歷還有東陵之說。玉并在《香珊瑚館詩稿·詠太平花》小序中謂太平花“光緒間由東陵移植”。
      清宮里的太平花不管是遠來西蜀還是移自東陵,有了太平花是不是就真的太平了呢?
      且看楊芃棫的《清宮詞》里的太平花詩:“一庭絳雪爛如霞,憇賞曾經駐翠華。三十年來塵疊劫,不堪還說太平花。”楊芃棫解釋道:“絳雪軒在御花園內,為隆裕太后休憇之所。軒前植絳雪花一株,花似春海棠,色都麗而氣芬馥,盛世則全樹著花,否則不開,故又名太平花。為海內外植物中絕無僅有之品,軒以是得名。庚子到今,歷年三十,此行適非花時,聞今年又盛開一次,豈時勢適得其反,疑惑聞之不足信耶?”
      這段文字算是說得很明白了,太平花在封建時代之所以受到皇家格外重視,就是因為太平花被視為盛世之“物候”征兆也。當然,準不準又是另外一回事了。
      故宮太平花“重返”青城山
      對于太平花的原產地,“西蜀說”占了上風。多認為是原產四川都江堰的青城山。其傳播路徑是從野外先到五代時后蜀王宮,再到北宋都城汴梁,宋仁宗賜名太平瑞圣花,最后到紫禁城,被乾隆賜名太平花。但不知道什么原因,后來在青城山再也見不到太平花了。于是經過四川都江堰政府部門的一番運作,2017年5月23日,故宮博物院把一叢太平花贈給了都江堰政府,花歸故里。
      當然這是一段佳話。但從科學角度看,太平花是不是原產青城山,也是存有疑問的,如果真的是原產青城山,那么為什么在青城山會消失得無影無蹤?這是不是太離奇了呢?
      傅振倫先生曾著文說“據京郊老農云:西山深處,多產此花,不足珍異”。說白了就是這玩意兒北京山里頭有的是。
      《北京森林植物圖譜》對太平花描述如下:落葉灌木,高1至2米。老枝樹皮剝落。單葉對生,卵形至狹卵形,邊緣疏生鋸齒,具三條主脈。總狀花序,具5至9朵花,有香味;萼筒鐘形,裂片4,黃褐色,花瓣4,乳白色。蒴果倒圓錐形,4瓣裂。花期5至6月,果期8至9月。分布及生境:北京見于各區縣山地,生于山坡和溪邊灌叢。分布于東北、華北、華東等地。
      河北的省花就是太平花,可見太平花在河北也是普遍栽培的。
      太平花被宋代、清代兩代皇帝賜名并極為重視,一個很大原因還是因為太平花已經被神秘化了,由于在宮廷中的高度重視,使得人們誤以為這是從宮廷傳入民間的。
      由于被神秘化,即便在宮廷之內,也是極少量種植的。我以為故宮完全可以適當擴大太平花的種植面積,這種小灌木很適合園林綠化,再者說,不僅僅封建帝王,就是黎民百姓也還是一樣:愛的是太平花,盼的是太平年。


    來源:北京晚報      編輯:秋痕

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