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    □ 當月熱點 □
    當前類別:首頁 >> 國學新聞 >> 奇聞軼事
    生孩子,有些"男人們"竟然可以獨立完成

    發布時間: 2019/6/24 0:31:34    被閱覽數:

    在《西游記》中,唐僧師徒四人途徑女兒國時,誤飲了子母河的水,便覺腹中作痛,上演了一場男人懷孕的奇遇。當然這只是神話小說,但在自然界或人類的干預下,有些雄性確實是可以“生孩子”的。父親節到了,這些雄性就開始犯愁了,它們到底應不應該過這個節日呢?
      海馬,屬刺魚目海龍科,因頭部彎曲呈馬頭狀而得名。雄海馬腹部具有育兒囊,而雌性卻沒有。
      每年的5月到8月,是海馬的繁殖期。兩只發情的海馬會來到海草中,尾部纏繞在一起轉個不停,并不斷變換著身體的顏色。不久之后,雄海馬把海水注入腹部的育兒囊,育兒囊吸水膨脹張開,雌海馬趁機插入輸卵管,迅速排入約兩百個卵子。隨后雄海馬的肚子大了起來,只得找根海草躲起來待產。
      在孕育的過程中,雄海馬的體內分泌了大量的催乳素,只是雄海馬并不會分泌乳汁,而只是為育兒囊裝滿氧氣。卵在育兒囊中受精,受精卵分裂后育兒囊內壁的疏松結締組織伸出一些突起包裹起胚胎。同時在結締組織內有大量的毛細血管出現,這些變化都有利于胚胎和成體之間進行物質交換。育兒囊為胎兒營造了類似海水的液體環境,使得小海馬一出生就可以適應周圍的海洋。
      “懷胎倆月”的爸爸終于要卸下包袱,發育成熟的海馬寶寶開始大量孵化,成百上千的小海馬從雄海馬的育兒囊中“井噴”而出。
      從理論上講,雄性的使命是為了繁殖更多的后代。比起把兒女托付給雌性,雄海馬可能覺得放在自己的肚子里更放心些吧。
      不過說到底雄海馬不過是搶了雌性的工作,充當著代孕的角色罷了,而有些“男人”更厲害,不要雌性照樣生的出孩子。
      花粉:離體培養成單倍體
      在時間的長河里,地球上各式各樣的生命不過都是曇花一現罷了。通過生殖,生物可以將DNA傳給后代,從而使種群得以延續。
      除了我們熟知的有性生殖,在自然條件或人為作用下還存在一些特殊的有性生殖方式。
      正常的有性生殖是由受精卵開始,但在特殊情況下精子或卵細胞可以不經結合而各自直接發育成形,這種方式叫做單性生殖。由單性生殖而來的個體,僅具有原生物體一半的染色體組數,因此被稱作單倍體。
      由卵細胞直接發育成個體的方式稱作孤雌生殖;由精子直接發育成個體的方式則稱作孤雄生殖。
      孤雌生殖在生物界較為常見,蜜蜂、蚜蟲、錘頭鯊,都有孤雌生殖的現象,自然條件下許多植物不經過受精作用就能產生無籽果實。而相比之下,孤雄生殖卻極為罕見。
      被子植物的雄蕊由著生在花絲上的花藥構成,花藥的囊中裝滿了的“花粉粒”,而精子就來源其中。
      以植物花藥(粉)培養為基礎的單倍體育種,可以縮短育種周期,創造遺傳和育種的新材料,具有十分重要的意義。
      但自然界產生單倍體的頻率卻很低,僅在0.001%~0.01%之間。
      直到1964 年,印度科學家首次從茄科植物毛曼陀羅的離體花藥中成功誘導出單倍體植株,這一方法引起了科學界的關注,在各國科學家的努力下,花藥(粉)培養產生單倍體植株的技術日趨成熟。
      花粉粒可以通過兩種方式產生單倍體植株:
      &#9655;由花粉分裂形成胚狀體,再由胚狀體形成植株。
      &#9655;由花粉分裂形成愈傷組織,再由愈傷組織分化出根和芽,進而形成植株。
      在花粉離體培養中,人為改變了花粉粒的發育途徑,使其配子體發育途徑終止,轉向孢子體發育。因此嚴格來講,花粉培養并不是完全意義上的孤雄生殖。
      孤雄生殖技術
      與植物相比,動物界的孤雄生殖在自然界中極為罕見,人工試驗也是步履維艱。腦洞大開的科學家們,竟想到利用牛的精子進行孤雄生殖,實現“公雞下蛋”的神話。
      什么是孤雄生殖技術?
      孤雄生殖技術主要是指將兩個精子移植到去核的卵母細胞中,進一步促進其活化和胚胎發育。
      孤雄生殖的神奇之處在于計劃生育,即可以人為控制性別:
      &#9655;若用兩個X精子作為供體,可產生雌性后代。
      &#9655;若用一個X精子和一個Y精子作為供體,則可產生雄性后代。
      為何要研究孤雄生殖技術?
      我國每年要從國外引入優良品種家畜,用于改善地方品種。優良公畜個體的引進往往耗費大量人力財力,而引進優良公畜的精液較為容易。
      但問題是以受精方式產生的后代中只有一半遺傳物質來自精液,久而久之容易陷入“引種—維持—退化—再引種”的惡性循環。體細胞克隆技術是解決問題的一種途徑,但因生產上的局限性不能得到廣泛應用。而“孤雄生殖技術”為解決這一問題提供了可能。
      基因組印記——孤雄生殖的障礙
      哺乳動物為二倍體生物,即具有兩套遺傳物質,一套來自母方,一套來自父方。相應的,基因也是兩個拷貝。一般情況下基因的兩個拷貝都可以表達,但在某些特殊情況下只有母源或父源一方的基因可以表達,而另一方的基因無法表達。這種現象稱作基因組印記,這種被“烙上印記”的基因稱作印記基因。
      而哺乳動物胚胎的正常發育則需要父源和母源基因組的共同參與:
      父源基因組主要參與胚外組織的發育
      母源基因組主要參與胎兒的形成與發育
      兩者分工合作,缺少任意一方,胚胎都無法正常發育。
      在哺乳動物早期原核移植試驗中,科學家將小鼠的精子和卵母細胞結合后形成含有一個雌原核和一個雄原核的野生型合子,而后將合子中的雄原核替換成雌原核,得到雙雌核胚胎,將合子中的雌原核替換成雄原核,得到雙雄核胚胎。
      實驗表明雌核胚胎與雄核胚胎均發育異常。
      因此,基因組印記被認為是哺乳動物雙雌核發育胚胎、雙雄核發育胚胎發育異常的主要原因。
      印記基因的表達調控是解決孤雄生殖胚胎發育難題的關鍵。未來這一問題必將使孤雄生殖的研究邁向新的高度!


    來源:科學大院      編輯:秋痕

    43歲卻有80歲身體,這個基因給“衰老時鐘”按了快進
    大閘蟹泛濫,比利時考慮將其送回中國人餐桌上

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