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    當前類別:首頁 >> 國學新聞 >> 問答平臺
    究竟什么是“魏晉風度”?(1)

    發布時間: 2017/11/1 11:05:29    被閱覽數:
    魏晉風度,一般理解為當時的名士風度,實際上指的是在中國魏晉時代產生的一種人格精神與生活方式的統一體。包括哲學思辨、人格境界、文學創作、審美追求等方面。從時間上來說,指的是三國時的魏(公元220-265年)至兩晉年代(公元265-420年),再到劉宋時代以士族名士為主體的生命體驗,它以竹林七賢中阮籍嵇康和晉宋時期詩人陶淵明為代表人物。
      
      今天我們就來與大家一起討論一下什么是魏晉風度,以及它的現代人生意義問題。主要談兩個問題:一、魏晉風度的形成背景;二、魏晉風度的表現形式。
      
      談到魏晉風度,不能不與當時興起的士族階層相聯系。士族,或者叫做世族是東漢末年興起的世家大族,他們壟斷做官的權力,有著自己的政治特權與莊園經濟,可以與皇權平分秋色,比如東晉時就有“王與馬,共天下”之說。在中國歷史上,唯一可以與皇權分庭抗禮的,就是魏晉南北朝年代的士族階層。魏晉風度的名士大部分是世家大族的人物,比如王謝家族,他們既是政治與經濟上的大族,也是文化的大族,謝氏是詩歌家族,王氏是書法大族。所以魏晉風度既是名士的精神貴族的產物,也是憑借經濟與政治上的特權而形成的。
      
      東漢末年,社會陷入了空前的戰亂之中,南北分裂,生靈涂炭,老莊人生無常,企求解脫的學說走進人們的心靈之中。王瑤先生在《中古文學史論集》中曾指出,感嘆人生無常是漢魏以來文學的主旋律。這種時代情緒又因了當時文化的主體士族的崛起形成為特定的思想體系。當時,對人生苦難的解脫,對逍遙境界的尋求,成了魏晉以來人生哲學的重大課題。當時,圍繞著這一主題,各種人生哲學紛紛出現。比較有代表性的,有這么幾種:一、以阮籍為代表的逍遙論。二、以嵇康為代表的養生論。三、以《列子·楊朱篇》為代表的縱欲論。此外,還有何晏、王弼的無為論,向秀、郭象的安命論等等。魏晉以后逐漸興盛的佛教,則是從宗教麻痹的角度,來解釋人生問題的。
      
      這幾種人生哲學雖然旨趣不同,角度各異,但都是探討如何解脫苦難,實現人生價值的。正像著名學者湯用彤先生在《魏晉玄學與文學理論》一文中所說的那樣:“魏晉人生觀之新型,其期望在超世之理想,其追求者為玄遠之絕對,而遺資生之相對。從哲理上來說,所在意欲探求玄遠之世界,脫離塵世之苦海,探得生存之奧秘。”這種生命精神在《世說新語》這部記載名士軼事的筆記小品中有著生動的表現。收入這部筆記中的大都是漢末以來名士沖決禮法,率真自得,狂誕任放的軼事。他們的行動有著明確的追求,這就是拋棄了傳統儒家哲學中過于拘執的一些道德說教,而以自己的生命意志來支配行為,通過偶發性的情節來組織行為,形成創作。最典型的則是王羲之的兒子王徽之雪夜訪戴的軼事:
    來源:《中華讀書報》      編輯:秋痕

    何謂氏族社會?
    究竟什么是“魏晉風度”?(2)

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