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    當前類別:首頁 >> 國學新聞 >> 專題報道 >> 物質與非物質文化遺產
    閩西非遺傀儡戲的舊貌新顏

    發布時間: 2019/7/5 0:44:56    被閱覽數:
    原標題:偶藝老腔傳新聲
        上杭縣白砂鎮大金村,被公認為閩西傀儡戲(又稱客家木偶戲)發源地。每年農歷六月廿四,來自龍巖、上杭等地的木偶藝人們都會來到這里的“田公堂”參加行業聚會,以特殊的方式祭拜田公祖師爺并開展木偶展演。
        盡管離“田公堂”盛會還有近一個月時間,但上杭縣泮境鄉彩霞村的木偶藝人王榮昌已經忙碌了起來。除了組織自己的木偶戲班進行排演,作為歷屆“田公堂”盛會主祭的王榮昌還得聯系各地木偶戲班主,舉行盛會前的各項籌備會。
        從藝50多年來,王榮昌潛心鉆研木偶雕刻、演出技藝,在偶人雕刻、線規、表演、唱腔等諸多方面達到極高水平且自成體系。由他組建的劇團在縣內外演出5000多場,觀眾達百萬人次,深受閩粵贛周邊地區客家民眾的喜愛和認同,他的劇團也因此成為縣里乃至市里的一張文化名片。2008年6月,王榮昌獲得福建省第一批省級非物質文化遺產——閩西上杭傀儡戲(高腔)代表性傳承人稱號。
        初登“三尺舞臺” 
        王榮昌并非出身木偶世家,從小學藝,實為生活所迫。
        14歲那年,家境貧困的王榮昌不得已輟學,與胞弟王榮洪拜在白砂大金村華成堂木偶戲班班主曾瑞倫門下,學習木偶戲高腔表演藝術并跟班演出。
        “那是我第一次長時間離開家鄉。”對于剛開始學藝的日子,王榮昌記憶猶新。那個時候的木偶演出很頻繁,鄉親們白天要干農活,演出時間主要集中在晚上。“一開始什么都不懂,就負責后臺敲鑼。”王榮昌說,由于演出經常持續到深夜,自己時常因為打瞌睡被師父用鼓板敲打。“最難熬的是對家鄉和母親的思念。”王榮昌清楚地記得,46天后他第一次回家探親,“哭喊著跑進屋里,跪在媽媽前面”。
        長期耳濡目染,使王榮昌對這門特殊的技藝產生了濃厚的興趣。但在那個年代,師父們對徒弟總是有所保留,要學到真正的技藝并不容易。王榮昌說,剛開始師父甚至不讓他們碰木偶,兄弟倆只好趁師父不在時把木偶偷拿出來學,“一個人站崗,一個人練習,學得很辛苦”。不過令王榮昌沒想到的是,后來發現實情的師父不僅沒有責罵他們兄弟,反而被他們的熱情和執著打動,將自身技藝傾囊相授。“師父一邊說,我一邊記,不懂的字就用拼音代替。”在王榮昌家里,至今還珍藏著幾十本泛黃的手抄筆記,里面記載著木偶雕刻、提線技藝、高腔唱詞、劇目文本等各種專業知識。在他眼里,這也是最重要的“傳家寶”。
        1982年,30歲的王榮昌正式出師。他與王榮洪組建起泮境鄉彩霞木偶劇團,收徒梁其山、梁東山、梁文榮等數十人,從此開始了自己的帶班生涯。
        丹心獻偶藝 
        閩西傀儡戲主要分為“高腔”與“亂彈”兩大戲種。與“亂彈”相比,“高腔”對木偶藝人本身的唱功要求更高。
        據上杭縣文化館副館長李伯庠介紹,王榮昌不僅嫻熟掌握提線技巧與舞臺鑼鼓,而且謙虛好學,能從方言、小調、雜曲、習俗中汲取營養豐富自己的唱腔,而說唱又十分通俗有趣,因此深得客家民眾的喜愛。他的演出以上杭為主,有時也會到廣東、江西,以及省內福州、廈門、莆田等地,“最多的年份,劇團一年演了6個月又17天”。
        “表演時全情投入,聲音語調有很強的藝術感染力。”在李伯庠看來,王榮昌對角色性格把握精準細致,源于他豐富的人生閱歷。
        事實上,年輕時王榮昌曾在沈陽服役五年,復員返鄉后還做過民兵連長、民辦教師。1988年至1996年,王榮昌連任三屆彩霞村村主任,后來還擔任彩霞村支部書記。而這期間,他一邊帶領村民調整產業結構、實現脫貧致富,一邊還和徒弟們帶團演出。
        “由于種種原因,傀儡戲班人才凋零,演出日益減少。”2000年3月,為了重振閩西上杭傀儡戲事業,協調各地傀儡戲班并解決相關問題,辭去彩霞村支部書記的王榮昌協同梁禮忠、劉金壽等人籌劃“田公堂”修復開放暨傀儡戲祖師“田公”偶像揭幕儀式。2001年,閩西木偶戲行會(田公會)在中斷近40年后,于白砂水竹洋再次舉行,“田公堂”自此成為傀儡戲行業祭祀和傀儡戲藝人、班主獻藝、匯演、交流的中心。
        2002年,上杭縣成立客家木偶文化藝術研究會,并全面恢復“田公會”的祭祀和傀儡戲班社的調演,古老的傀儡戲劇行會傳統得以保存。2011年,上杭“田公元帥信俗”被福建省政府公布為第四批福建省非物質文化遺產。
        老藝迎新生 
        2015年,上杭縣藝術中心更名為上杭縣客家木偶藝術傳習中心,閩西上杭傀儡戲的傳承也多了一份助力。
        “政府每年給予中心20萬元經費。”上杭縣客家木偶傳習中心主任邱保銘告訴記者,傳習中心每年至少舉行50場木偶戲展演,通過“木偶進社區”“木偶進校園”等活動,讓閩西上杭傀儡戲重新回到大眾視野。“我們現在返聘了多位木偶老藝人為傳習中心開展不定期的授課。”邱保銘說,另一方面,為了提高木偶表演藝人的水平,除了積極組隊參加各地木偶交流活動,上杭還派專人前往泉州、廈門等地學習技藝,并邀請外地專家前來上杭指導授課。此外,傳習中心通過培養、招收學員等方式不斷為木偶戲演出隊伍儲備人才,“現在我們的隊伍不斷壯大,其中有15個是年輕人才”。
        “從小我就很喜歡看傀儡戲。”2016年,剛剛大學畢業的葉曼云懷著滿腔熱血報考了上杭縣木偶藝術傳習中心,幾乎與此同時,她在朋友的引薦下認識了王榮昌并拜在他的門下。
        在她眼里,師父不僅技藝高超,而且和藹可親。葉曼云常常驅車來到泮境,跟著王榮昌學習木偶表演、提線、唱腔等技藝。如今,她已經成為上杭縣客家木偶傳習中心的骨干成員。
        實際上,在眾多徒弟之中,葉曼云并非唯一的年輕傳人。因為年歲的關系,王榮昌現在只是偶爾帶班演出。在這不多的演出中,最得力的助手,要數王榮昌的兒子王煒元。
        因為從小耳濡目染,王煒元對傀儡戲也有著濃厚的興趣。但直到現在,他也只是一個兼職演員,“光靠這個不能養家,而且我的技術水平也還不夠”。為了更好地學習木偶表演技藝,王煒元專門花1萬多元買來一臺攝像機,每次在父親演出時就進行全程錄制。
        在王煒元家中的陽臺上,掛著一具父親親手制作的提線木偶。每日下班回家,擺弄、練習提線技藝是他最開心的時刻。“等我退休或者時機成熟,也會全身心投入木偶事業,畢竟這是幾輩人共同的心血。”王煒元認真地說。
          記者;李凌生;通訊員;林斯乾;鄧婕婕
    來源:福建日報      編輯:秋痕

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